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Case Name Blackmon-Malloy v. U.S. Capitol Police Board EE-DC-0051
Docket / Court 1:01-cv-02221-EGS-JMF ( D.D.C. )
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) Equal Employment
Special Collection Private Employment Class Actions
Case Summary
On October 29, 2001, more than 250 African-American current or former U.S. Capitol Police Officers filed this race discrimination lawsuit under the Congressional Accountability Act ("CAA"), 2 U.S.C. § 1311, against the United States Capitol Police Board in the U.S. District Court for the District ... read more >
On October 29, 2001, more than 250 African-American current or former U.S. Capitol Police Officers filed this race discrimination lawsuit under the Congressional Accountability Act ("CAA"), 2 U.S.C. § 1311, against the United States Capitol Police Board in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. The plaintiffs also included claims under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e, and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, 42 U.S.C. § 1981a. Specifically, the plaintiffs alleged that the disproportionately low number of African-Americans in the police force and in leadership positions within the force demonstrated rampant racial discrimination. Even though African-Americans comprised more than 60% of the D.C. general population, they made up only 31% of the police force and 16% of ranking positions. The plaintiffs sought compensatory damages and injunctive relief.

On September 30, 2004, Judge Emmet G. Sullivan granted the police boards' motion to dismiss the complaint. Judge Sullivan held that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not cover legislative branch employees. Therefore, he held that the plaintiffs could only bring suit under the CAA to challenge employment discrimination. This too was barred because the court only had subject matter jurisdiction over claims in which the plaintiff completed counseling and mediation regarding the alleged violation within the time limits specified by the CAA. Although several plaintiffs had requested mediation, they had failed to participate. Judge Sullivan held that such actions could not satisfy the "completing mediation" requirement within the CAA, but he granted the plaintiffs the opportunity to file a motion for reconsideration if they properly complied. 338 F.Supp.2d 97.

The plaintiffs filed a motion to reconsider on January 14, 2005. Judge Sullivan denied their motion without prejudice on August 4, 2005, in an unpublished order. He referred the issue to Magistrate Judge John M. Facciola to determine whether any individual class members were entitled to relief.

Throughout 2006, there was extensive litigation over the plaintiffs' attorneys' motions to withdraw as counsel to individual plaintiffs who had failed to pay or communicate with attorneys. These motions were denied and granted in part as to certain plaintiffs. 2006 WL 891163; 2007 WL 841019. The case was also consolidated with several others against the Police Board.

Magistrate Judge Facciola issued a Report and Recommendation on March 19, 2007, in which he lamented the plaintiffs' failure to comply with Judge Sullivan's September 30, 2004, order requiring parties to clearly demonstrate their compliance with counseling and mediation as demanded under the CAA. Magistrate Judge Facciola noted that much of the evidence subsequently provided by plaintiffs was either inconsistent or insufficient. It was therefore only a "place to start." Based on the evidence provided, he:
  1. dismissed with prejudice claims where the plaintiffs had clearly failed to exhaust administrative remedies;
  2. dismissed without prejudice claims where the plaintiffs seemed to have exhausted the administrative remedies, but failed to provide the court with sufficient evidence; and,
  3. upheld claims where the plaintiffs had clearly exhausted administrative remedies.
2007 WL 841019. On May 15, Magistrate Judge Facciola dismissed with prejudice the second group after the plaintiffs had failed to provide supporting documents to demonstrate compliance with the CAA. 2007 WL 1438763. On August 15, 2007, the Court adopted the recommendations of Magistrate Judge Facciola, thereby dismissing with prejudice a substantial number of the remaining claims. 2007 WL 6847408.

The plaintiffs appealed, and the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia issued its opinion on July 31, 2009. The case was heard before Judge David Bryan Sentelle, Judge Douglas Ginsburg, and Judge Judith Rogers. There were three aspects of the district court's ruling at issue: (1) whether the three-step process requiring counseling and mediation before an employee could file a complaint was jurisdictional, (2) whether in-person attendance by the employee was required at counseling or mediation, and (3) whether receipt of end of counseling and mediation notices demonstrated completion of counseling and mediation. The Court of Appeals (with the opinion written by Judge Rogers) affirmed the district court's ruling with respect to whether the three-step process was jurisdictional, holding that it was. Yet, the Court of Appeals reversed the district court's in-person ruling, holding that the CAA did not require in-person attendance by the employee at counseling or mediation. Lastly, the Court of Appeals held that receipt from the Office of Compliance of written notice of the end of mediation did demonstrate the employee's completion of counseling and mediation. The case was then remanded. 575 F.3d 699.

On May 10, 2010, the plaintiffs filed a Joint Fourth Amended Class Action Complaint, re-alleging that the defendant had violated the CAA and that the action was properly maintainable as a class action under FRCP 23(a). On August 12, 2010, the defendant filed a Motion to Dismiss the Fourth Amended Complaint, alleging lack of jurisdiction. While awaiting the court's ruling, the parties continued to dispute discovery matters. On March 9, 2012, the court referred the case again to Magistrate Judge John M. Facciola for resolution of defendant's motion to dismiss the fourth amended complaint. On December 14, 2012, the Magistrate Judge Facciola issued a report and recommendation regarding whether the complaint should be dismissed. In it, Magistrate Judge Facciola noted that vast majority of the plaintiffs should be dismissed for failure to exhaust their administrative remedies as required under the CAA, while the plaintiffs who submitted enough evidence of exhaustion should proceed past the motion to dismiss ("Appendix II"), and the rest of remaining plaintiffs should be dismissed with prejudice. Finally, Magistrate Judge Facciola identified five plaintiffs for whom additional clarification was necessary. Both parties responded and objected to the Magistrate Judge Facciola’s report and recommendation.

On July 10, 2013, the plaintiffs sought to amend or correct the amended complaint. The defendant opposed the motion, and the court did not issue an order on the matter. From September 2013 through April 2015 there was no activity on the docket. On April 21, 2015, counsel for the plaintiffs moved for a hearing on a motion to withdraw. In a May 1, 2015, minute order, the court ordered the plaintiffs to file a motion to withdraw, and Judge Sullivan temporarily stayed the case to allow the plaintiff time to acquire new counsel.

Hearings were rescheduled several times throughout 2015 and 2016. On October 13, 2016, U.S. District Judge Emmet G. Sullivan issued a memorandum opinion resolving the plaintiffs' objections to Magistrate Judge Facciola's dismissal of most of their claims, and the plaintiff's motion to file a fifth amended complaint. Judge Sullivan adopted in part and rejected in part Magistrate Judge Facciola's recommendations, thereby dismissing many, but not all, of the plaintiffs' claims on jurisdictional grounds. He also denied the plaintiffs' motion to file a fifth amended complaint. On February 14, 2017, the plaintiffs filed a motion for reconsideration on one of the claims Judge Sullivan dismissed, which was denied on March 30, 2018.

On February 19, 2019, one plaintiff filed a motion for appointment of a mediator to assist in the mediation of settlement discussion of all claims by this plaintiff. The court also agreed to provide court-appointed counsel for the pro se plaintiffs during the mediation phase.

By July 30, 2019, one plaintiff was represented by private counsel and the other eight represented themselves pro se. On that day, the court granted in part and denied in part the defendant's August 12, 2010, motion to dismiss for lack of jurisdiction for the reasons laid out in the October 13, 2016, memorandum opinion. The plaintiffs moved for reconsideration on August 21, 2019.

In their August 27, 2019 status report, the plaintiffs stated that the defendant's counsel had been unresponsive to communication from the plaintiffs. At the end of 2019, and again at the end of 2020, the defendant found new counsel.

The court granted the plaintiff's August 21, 2019 motion for reconsideration on March 18, 2021. The court also denied without prejudice the individual plaintiff's motion for mediation from February 19, 2019, wanting to wait until the court ruled on the defendant's anticipated motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim.

The case is ongoing.

Jordan Rossen - 09/23/2010
MJ Koo - 03/13/2017
Sichun Liu - 03/21/2019
Lauren Yu - 04/08/2021


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Defendant-type
Law-enforcement
Discrimination-area
Discharge / Constructive Discharge / Layoff
Discipline
Harassment / Hostile Work Environment
Other Conditions of Employment (including assignment, transfer, hours, working conditions, etc)
Promotion
Training
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Disparate Impact
Disparate Treatment
Pattern or Practice
Retaliation
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Race
Black
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1981
Title VII (including PDA), 42 U.S.C. § 2000e
Defendant(s) United States Capitol Police Board
Plaintiff Description Black officers who experienced race discrimination and retaliation in their employment with the U.S. Capitol Police.
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status outcome Pending
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party None Yet / None
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief None yet
Source of Relief None yet
Filed 10/29/2001
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
Court Docket(s)
D.D.C.
04/02/2021
1:01-cv-02221-EGS-JMF
EE-DC-0051-9000.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
D.D.C.
10/29/2001
Complaint [ECF# 1]
EE-DC-0051-0019.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
10/29/2001
Class Action Complaint for Temporary and Permanent Injunctive Relief, Monetary Damages and Awards, and Other Remedies [ECF# 1]
EE-DC-0051-0021.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
09/30/2004
Opinion and Order (granting Defendant's motion to dismiss without prejudice to reconsideration of those plaintiffs' claims that conform to the timely counseling and mediation requests as explained in the opinion) [ECF# 92] (338 F.Supp.2d 97)
EE-DC-0051-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2006
Order [ECF# 127] (2006 WL 891163)
EE-DC-0051-0006.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/19/2007
Report and Recommendation [ECF# 151]
EE-DC-0051-0020.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
05/15/2007
Supplemental Report and Recommendation [ECF# 166] (2007 WL 1438763)
EE-DC-0051-0007.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Court of Appeals
07/31/2009
Opinion (affirming in part, and reversing and remanding in part the district court ruling) [Ct. of App. ECF# 1199250 ] (575 F.3d 699)
EE-DC-0051-0016.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
05/10/2010
Joint Fourth Amended Class Action Complaint [ECF# 278]
EE-DC-0051-0013.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
12/14/2012
Report and Recommendation Regarding Defendant's Motion to Dismiss Fourth Amended Complaint [ECF# 376]
EE-DC-0051-0017.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
10/13/2016
Memorandum Opinion [ECF# 429]
EE-DC-0051-0018.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/19/2017
Report and Recommendation [ECF# 151]
EE-DC-0051-0022.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
show all people docs
Judges Facciola, John M. Court not on record [Magistrate] show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0006 | EE-DC-0051-0007 | EE-DC-0051-0017 | EE-DC-0051-0020 | EE-DC-0051-0022
Ginsburg, Douglas Howard (D.C. Circuit) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0016
Rogers, Judith Ann Wilson (D.C. Circuit) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0016
Sentelle, David Bryan (W.D.N.C., D.C. Circuit) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0016
Sullivan, Emmet G. (D.D.C.) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0015 | EE-DC-0051-0018 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Plaintiff's Lawyers Butler, James Quincy (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Celestin, Jenny (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Day, Charles W. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0013 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Fitch, Elaine Lynette (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Garon, Lenore (Virginia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0013 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Gebhardt, Daniel K. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0013 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Gebhardt, Joseph (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Johnson, Nathaniel D (Maryland) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0013 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Lee, Susan C. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Macon, Derrick W. (Maryland) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Pitre, Algernon Marques (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Rainey, Valencia (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0013 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Rucker, Donna Williams (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0013 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Thompson, Richard Lloyd II (Maryland) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Ware, Charles Jerome (Maryland) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-0019 | EE-DC-0051-0021 | EE-DC-0051-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Anderson, Rafique O (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Birkhill, Benjamin George (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Burch, Alan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Duffey, Thomas (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Earnest, Robin M. (Maryland) show/hide docs
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Hair, Christopher Charles (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Kelly, Wynne Patrick (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Lambert, Audrey Elizabeth (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
McBarnette, Andrea (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Roback, Harry B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Scindian, Kelly M (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Simon, Jeremy S (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Weinstein, Laurie J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Other Lawyers Eveleth, Peter Ames (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000
Uelmen, John D. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
EE-DC-0051-9000

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