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Case Name Waid v. Snyder PB-MI-0014
Docket / Court 5:16-cv-10444-JEL-MKM ( E.D. Mich. )
State/Territory Michigan
Case Type(s) Public Benefits / Government Services
Case Summary
For several years, the City of Flint purchased treated drinking water from the Detroit Water and Sewage Department (DWSD), but in 2014 the City switched its drinking water source to the Flint River. The Flint River had corrosive elements, however, and exposure to its toxic substances led many Flint ... read more >
For several years, the City of Flint purchased treated drinking water from the Detroit Water and Sewage Department (DWSD), but in 2014 the City switched its drinking water source to the Flint River. The Flint River had corrosive elements, however, and exposure to its toxic substances led many Flint residents to sustain long-term physical and mental injuries. On February 8, 2016, a group of Flint, Michigan residents filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan against the State of Michigan, the City of Flint, private businesses, and a myriad of state actors, such as Michigan’s Governor Rick Snyder, the Mayor of Flint, and the Emergency Financial Managers of Flint. The plaintiffs alleged that the defendants knew of the corrosive elements in the Flint River water and made the transfer in spite of this knowledge, violating several laws including the Safe Drinking Water Act, Due Process, and state tort law. Represented by private counsel, the plaintiffs sought monetary damages and injunctive and declaratory relief.

On February 11th, the case was reassigned from District Judge Matthew Leitman in Detroit, to District Judge John Corbett O’Meara and Magistrate Judge Mona Majzoub in Ann Arbor.

Given the magnitude of the Flint Water Crisis, other individuals had filed similar claims in District Courts throughout the State of Michigan. On April 12, 2016, the plaintiffs in this case, along with the plaintiffs in Gilcreast et al. v Lockwood, Andrews & Newman, P.C. filed a motion to consolidate actions in Mays, et al. v Snyder, et al.

Six government employees listed as defendants in this case, as well as the City of Flint, filed a motion to dismiss the case on August 22nd, 2016 but renewed their motion on October 7th to reflect the changes made in plaintiffs newly filed amended complaint. On November 3rd, 2016, Judge O’Meara filed a stipulation and order of partial dismissal of the plaintiffs' amended complaint as to the MDEQ employees. Those individuals were officially dismissed from the case.

Meanwhile, several of the defendants being sued in their official capacity as employees of MDEQ filed a motion to change venue on October 27th, 2016. These defendants argued that the local media attention over this issue was overwhelming and the adverse coverage would make it nearly impossible to find a fair and impartial jury. Presenting evidence on the quantity and content of the publicity and the effect the publicity was having on the Michigan public, the defendants requested the Judge transfer the case to an out-of-state metropolitan venue. In the alternative, the defendants requested a transfer to a less prejudicial venue in Michigan, such as the Northern Division of the United States District Court for the Western District of Michigan.

On December 1, 2016, the plaintiffs filed a response to the defendants’ motion to change venue, arguing their motion was meritless and premature, as a jury trial likely would not occur for months, if not years, and the defendants’ evidence demonstrated that there were nearly a million jurors who remained unbiased from the media coverage.

Several motions to dismiss were filed by different combinations of defendants throughout litigation. On February 7, 2017, Judge O’Meara, following the Court’s rationale in a virtually identical case, McMillian v Snyder, granted the defendants’ pending motions to dismiss. The Judge found that the plaintiffs’ claims under 42 U.S.C. §1983 were precluded by the Safe Drinking Water Act, the plaintiffs’ Safe Drinking Water Act claims were barred by the plaintiffs' failure to provide adequate notice under the statute, and, given the lack of viable federal claims, refused to exercise supplemental jurisdiction over the state law claims. Therefore, the plaintiffs’ complaint was dismissed in its entirety and judgment was entered in favor of the defendants. However, a motion to amend or alter the judgment was filed by Veolia North America Operating Services, LLC, Veolia North America, Inc., and Veolia North America, LLC a month later on March 7, 2017. Judge O’Meara granted this motion on May 3rd.

An order of disqualification was filed on May 12, 2017 and the case was reassigned from Judge O’Meara in Ann Arbor to District Judge Paul D. Borman in Detroit. But, two days later an order of recusal was filed and the case was once again reassigned, this time to District Judge Judith E. Levy on May 15th. After this final reassignment several defendants refiled their motions to dismiss.

On June 9, 2017, the plaintiffs in this case filed a joint motion to consolidate the other ten pending class action cases related to the Flint Water Crisis. Judge Levy granted the motion to consolidate the following eight cases on July 27, 2017: Case Nos. 16-cv-10796, 16-cv-11173, 16-cv-11247, 16-cv-12875, 16-cv-14498, 17-cv-10343, 17-cv-10360, and 17-cv-10799. Several defendants filed a motion for reconsideration of this order on August 10th. But, Judge Levy upheld the order for consolidation a few days later.

After these cases were officially closed and consolidated with this case, all of the plaintiffs filed an amended complaint against all current defendants on September 29th. A second amended complaint was filed on October 27, 2017 after Judge Levy ordered the consolidation of two additional cases—16-10444 and 17-10941—two days prior. On December 1, 2017, motions to dismiss the second amended complaint were filed.

The plaintiffs filed a third amended complaint on January 25, 2018, removing the references to criminal charges against certain defendants. The third amended complaint is the last complaint filed thus far in the litigation and includes the following claims: substantive due process- state created danger, substantive due process- bodily integrity, Equal Protection based on race and wealth, invidious racial animus in violation of 42 U.S.C. §1985(3), violation of the public services provisions under Michigan’s ELCRA, Monell liability against the City of Flint, and various torts (negligence, fraud, NIED) against the professional business defendants.

Judge Levy consolidated this case with Carthan v. Snyder (no. 16-CV-10444) on April 9th and appointed a Special Master to oversee the case on July 5th.

On August 1st, 2018, Judge Levy ruled on the motion to dismiss filed by multiple defendants on December 1st, 2017. The professional businesses, Governor Snyder, Officer Wyant -- the director of MDEQ -- and the emergency manager of Flint from 2012-2013 were all dismissed from the case after Judge Levy found that the plaintiffs did not sufficiently plead a substantive due process- bodily integrity claim against them. In addition to finding in favor of the defendants as to the substantive due process- bodily integrity claim, Judge Levy found in favor of the defendants as to the Equal Protection claims, the ELCRA racial animus claim, as well as the tort claims. Therefore, these claims were dismissed as well.

Following this opinion, the City of Flint filed a motion to correct the opinion and to certify it for interlocutory appeal on August 15, 2018. The City of Flint wanted to immediately appeal Judge Levy’s decision to uphold the plaintiffs’ Monell liability claim, as it is a controlling question of law and immediate appeal would advance termination of the case. However, Judge Levy denied the request for interlocutory appeal on October 31, 2018, concluding the decision was based on well-established case law.

Additionally, the plaintiffs filed an appeal of this order on August 21, 2018. While the Sixth Circuit docketed the case, it could not move forward with the appeal until Judge Levy ruled on the motions for reconsideration that had been filed by some of the defendants remaining in the case. Before the motions of reconsideration were heard by Judge Levy, however, the plaintiffs filed a motion for leave to file an amended complaint. Since the August 1st opinion and order was a final judgment as to the defendants and claims that were dismissed at that time, in order for the plaintiffs to file an amended complaint, the final judgment had to be vacated. Judge Levy, therefore, vacated the August 1st opinion and order and granted the plaintiffs motion to file an amended complaint on November 9, 2018.

Judge Levy officially ruled on the plaintiffs' motion to file an amended complaint on April 1, 2019, granting the request to amend the bodily integrity claim against Governor Snyder and the factual allegations of the complaint, but denying the request to amend all other claims.

Judge Levy also ruled on the defendants' outstanding motions to dismiss in her April 1st opinion and order. Judge Levy granted the State of Michigan's motion to dismiss on the basis of sovereign immunity. While Judge Levy did not find that the government officials were similarly protected by sovereign immunity, she did grant several of their motions to dismiss on different grounds. Finding that the plaintiffs failed to state a claim against the alleged defendants, Judge Levy dismissed the following claims: §1983, Equal Protection Clause, §1985(3) Conspiracy, ELCRA, §1983- State Created Danger, Fraud, NEID, Negligence, and Gross Negligence. After this order, the only claims remaining in the suit are bodily integrity against Governor Snyder and various government officials (with the exception of claims relating to property damage), Monell liability against the City of Flint, and Professional Negligence against LAN and Veolia.

As of April 21, 2019, the case is ongoing.

Mackenzie Walz - 04/21/2019


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Defendant-type
Hospital/Health Department
Jurisdiction-wide
Sanitation/Public Works
General
Government Services (specify)
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Race
Black
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
State law
Defendant(s) City of Flint
Director of Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Emergency Financial Manager
Governor Snyder
Mayor of Flint
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Plaintiff Description Several residents of the City of Flint.
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Unknown
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party None Yet / None
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief None yet
Source of Relief None yet
Filing Year 2016
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing PB-MI-0012 : Washington v. Snyder (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0015 : Mays v. Snyder (E.D. Mich.)
Additional Resources
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Docket(s)
5:16-cv-10444 (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/11/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint for Money Damages, Injunctive and Declaratory Relief with Reliance on Jury Demand for Violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act [ECF# 1]
PB-MI-0014-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/08/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Joint Motion and Brief in Support of Motion to Consolidate Actions [ECF# 12-1]
PB-MI-0014-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/12/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
First Amended Class Action Complaint [ECF# 31]
PB-MI-0014-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/12/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
MDEQ Defendants' Motion for Change of Venue *Oral Argument Request* [ECF# 57]
PB-MI-0014-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/27/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiff's Response to MDEQ Defendants' Motion for Change of Venue [ECF# 89]
PB-MI-0014-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/01/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 113] (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/07/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Joint Motion for Consolidation of the Class Actions, Appointment of Interim Co-Lead Class Counsel, and Appointment of Liaison Counsel for the Individual Actions [ECF# 136]
PB-MI-0014-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/09/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 173] (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/27/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Consolidated Amended Class Complaint for Injunctive and Declaratory Relief, Money Damages, and Jury Demand [ECF# 214]
PB-MI-0014-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/29/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Consolidated Amended Class Complaint for Injunctive and Declaratory Relief, Money Damages, and Jury Demand [ECF# 238]
PB-MI-0014-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/27/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order Granting in Part and Denying in Part Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 546] (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/01/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Denying City of Flint's Motion to Amend and Certify in Part the Court's August 1, 2018 Opinion and Order for Interlocutory Appeal [565] [ECF# 659] (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/31/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Plaintiffs' Motion for Relief from Judgment and Vacating the Court's August 1, 2018 546 Opinion and Order [ECF# 670] (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/09/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order Granting in Part and Denying in Part Putative Class Plaintiffs' Motion for Leave to File an Amended Complaint [620] and Granting in Part and Denying in Part Defendants' Motions to Dismiss [ECF# 798] (2019 WL 1442743) (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0014-0014.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 04/01/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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Majzoub, Mona K. (E.D. Mich.) [Magistrate] show/hide docs
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Plaintiff's Lawyers Abood, Andrew P. (Michigan) show/hide docs
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Amodeo, Salvatore A. (Michigan) show/hide docs
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Berezofsky, Esther (New Jersey) show/hide docs
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Bern, Marc J. (New York) show/hide docs
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