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Case Name State of New York v. Trump IM-NY-0055
Docket / Court 1:17-cv-05228 ( E.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Special Collection Civil Rights Challenges to Trump Immigration Enforcement Orders
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Case Summary
Sixteen states, led by the State of New York, filed this lawsuit against the federal government on September 6, 2017 in response to a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) memorandum issued on September 5 ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. The states argued that ... read more >
Sixteen states, led by the State of New York, filed this lawsuit against the federal government on September 6, 2017 in response to a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) memorandum issued on September 5 ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. The states argued that ending DACA violated due process and equal protection rights protected by the Fifth Amendment, the Administrative Procedure Act, and the Regulatory Flexibility Act. The states sought to enjoin the federal government from carrying out portions of the DHS memorandum and from using information about DACA grantees gathered in their applications to enforce immigration policy. The suit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York.

The complaint asserted that DACA helped its beneficiaries in several ways. First, since its inception in 2012, DACA protected approximately 800,000 young people from deportation. Second, DACA allowed individuals brought to the United States as children who met specific criteria to request deferred action for two years, subject to renewal. Indeed, the states pointed out that many of the grantees have spent most of their lives in the United States. Third, DACA allowed grantees to receive public benefits like social security, to enroll in higher education institutions, and to access other benefits like opening up a bank account and buying a car. And finally, the states noted that the federal government represented that it would not use the information obtained in the DACA application process to enforce immigration policy.

The states argued that these grantees would now lose their protections and be at risk for deportation, especially since the grantees provided the federal government with sensitive information in their applications. In light of the DHS memorandum, the federal government planned to immediately stop accepting new DACA applications. Further, it only issued renewals for grantees whose terms expired before March 5, 2018, provided they apply for renewal by October 5, 2018. The states highlighted that in addition to the losses DACA grantees will suffer, state and local economies, as well as many higher education institutions, have come to rely on the skills and productivity of the grantees and will therefore also suffer. The states pointed out that over half of DACA grantees are of Mexican origin and thus ending DACA "is a culmination of President’s Trump’s oft-stated commitments...to punish and disparage people with Mexican roots." Further, the states argued that the grantees' sensitive information is at risk since President Trump took "affirmative steps to reduce the privacy protections applicable to DACA data" with a January 2017 Executive Order directing all agencies to "exclude persons who are not United States citizens or lawful permanent residents from the protections of the Privacy Act regarding personally identifiable information" Meanwhile, the states pointed out that the DHS Memorandum did not provide assurance to DACA grantees or direction to USCIS and ICE that this information could not be used for the purpose of immigration policy enforcement.

The case was assigned to Judge Allyne R. Ross on September 6, and reassigned to Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis and Magistrate Judge James Orenstein the next day. Originally, the plaintiffs consisted of New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Connecticut, Delaware, District Of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Virginia. Then Colorado joined as part of an amended complaint filed on October 4, which also claimed that the United States was equitably estopped from using or disclosing DACA beneficiaries’ personal information that it previously promised to keep confidential.

On October 6, the United States filed a partial administrative record in the related case Batalla Vidal v. Nielsen, available here. The record included a series of government documents pertaining to DACA from its inception to the decision to rescind it. The Batalla Vidal plaintiffs then moved to compel the defendants to complete the administrative record, arguing that the defendants had not produced all of the documents leading to the rescission. Specifically, the plaintiffs argued that they omitted documents that Acting Secretary Duke did not directly review. The judge in Batalla Vidal (also Judge Garaufis) granted the motion on October 19 and ordered the defendants to produce the full administrative record in both cases.

The defendants appealed to the Second Circuit, which granted an emergency motion for a stay of discovery and record supplementation in the district court pending consideration by the Second Circuit on October 20.

On October 27, the defendants moved in the district court to dismiss the case for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and failure to state a claim, arguing that the rescission is an enforcement action "presumed immune from judicial review" and that, alternatively, the government provided ample explanation for the rescission. On November to dismiss for lack of subject mater jurisdiction. The court dismissed the plaintiffs' claims that policy changes in how information provided for DACA applications could be used violated due process and equitable estoppel. The court also dismissed the plaintiffs' claim that the government violated due process by failing to provide individualized notice of the rescission. In both cases, the court determined that the plaintiffs lacked standing. The court found, however, that the plaintiffs had standing to challenge the DACA rescission. The court reserved ruling on the government's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim and denied all other parts of its motion.

On December 15, the plaintiffs moved for a preliminary injunction, seeking to enjoin the government from rescinding DACA.

Meanwhile, a series of entities filed amicus briefs in support of the plaintiffs: United We Dream, over 100 companies, educational justice organizations, the Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality, law enforcement leaders, workers' organizations, legal services organizations, New York University, the Mexican government, dozens of religious organizations, immigration nonprofits, various U.S. cities and counties, and civil rights organizations.

On December 27, the Second Circuit lifted the district court's stay on discovery. But the government still did not want to provide additional documents. It also wanted to appeal the district court’s ruling on the motion to dismiss. So, two days later, the government moved to stay further supplementation of the administrative record in the district court pending its appeal on the motion to dismiss. The district court granted the government’s motion to stay on December 30. It then certified the government’s interlocutory appeal on January 8.

On February 13, 2018, the district court granted the plaintiffs' preliminary injunction motion, reasoning that the government likely lacked a legally sufficient basis for ending the DACA program. The court found that while the government could end DACA, the question was if they had provided legally adequate reasons for rescission. The court found that the decision to end the program was based on an erroneous conclusion that DACA was unconstitutional and violated the Administrative Procedure Act and the Immigration and Nationality Act, and that this conclusion in turn relied on the "plainly incorrect factual premise" that courts have found the "somewhat analogous" Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents program to have "constitutional defects." The court also found that the purported reason for rescission was contradictory in that the government claimed DACA must end because it was unconstitutional and yet also provided for a wind-down period in which certain DACA renewal applications would continue to be adjudicated. As a result, the court held that the rescission was arbitrary and capricious and enjoined the government from ending the program on a nationwide basis pending the court's decision on the merits of the case.

The government filed notice on February 20 that it had appealed the district court’s decision to issue a preliminary injunction to the Second Circuit.

Meanwhile, on March 29, 2018, the district court granted in part and denied in part the government's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim. The court dismissed the plaintiffs' claim that the rescission violated the Administrative Procedure Act’s requirement for notice-and-comment, finding that the rescission memorandum was a general statement of policy exempt from the notice-and-comment requirement rather than a legislative rule. This finding led the court to further dismiss the plaintiffs' claim regarding Regulatory Flexibility Act violations since an RFA violation is contingent on a notice-and-comment requirement in the first place. The court also dismissed the plaintiffs' claim that the government changed its information-use policy but left the door open to other challenges of that policy. The court sustained the plaintiffs' equal protection claim that the rescission was motivated by racial animus against Latinos, finding that the plaintiffs adequately alleged the rescission created disparate impact. Further, the court found that while the plaintiffs may not have sufficiently alleged that Acting Secretary Duke or the Attorney General had discriminatory intent, they did sufficiently allege that President Trump may have had such intent and that his influence on the rescission could not be ignored.

The government promptly appealed the March 29, 2018 district court order denying its motions to dismiss for failure to state a claim. The Second Circuit decided to hear the government’s appeal in tandem with the appeal of the preliminary injunction and the appeal of the district court’s November 9, 2017 decision on the motion to dismiss for lack of jurisdiction and similar appeals in Batalla Vidal. However, the Second Circuit has not issued a merits opinion as of September 11, 2019.

There has, however, been substantial progress in other DACA litigation. On June 28, 2019, the Supreme Court agreed to hear three consolidated DACA cases: Batalla Vidal, Department of Homeland Security v. Regents of the University of California, and Trump v. NAACP (see related cases). The Court is expected to issue a decision by the summer of 2020.

The case is ongoing.

Virginia Weeks - 09/07/2017
Virginia Weeks - 03/30/2018
Eva Richardson - 05/21/2019


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Benefit Source
DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief granted
Discrimination-basis
Immigration status
National origin discrimination
General
Confidentiality
Drivers Licenses
Education
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Youth / Adult separation
Immigration/Border
Constitutional rights
Deportation - criteria
Deportation - judicial review
Deportation - procedure
Family
Legalization/Amnesty
Status/Classification
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
Undocumented immigrants - state and local regulation
National Origin/Ethnicity
Hispanic
Plaintiff Type
State Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Defendant(s) President of the United States
Plaintiff Description Various U.S. states
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party None Yet / None
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Source of Relief Litigation
Filing Year 2017
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing IM-NY-0051 : Batalla Vidal v. Nielsen (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-CA-0095 : Regents of University of California v. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (N.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0096 : State of California v. Department of Homeland Security (N.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0098 : City of San Jose v. Trump (N.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0099 : Garcia v. United States of America (N.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0106 : County of Santa Clara v. Trump (N.D. Cal.)
IM-DC-0032 : National Association for the Advancement of Colored People v. Trump (D.D.C.)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  New York Dreamer Challenges Trump Administration’s Termination of DACA
https://www.nilc.org
Date: Sep. 5, 2017
By: National Immigration Law Center
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  A.G. Schneiderman Files Lawsuit To Protect Dreamers And Preserve DACA
https://ag.ny.gov/
Date: Sep. 5, 2017
By: New York State Attorney General
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
www.dhs.gov
Date: Sep. 5, 2017
By: Department of Homeland Security
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Implementation of Executive Order 13768, "Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
The Washington Post
Date: May 22, 2017
By: Jefferson Sessions (U.S. Department of Justice)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Implementing the President's Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements Policies (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Enforcement of the Immigration Laws to Serve the National Interest (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Executive Order 13767: Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 27, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
Citation: 82 Fed. Reg. Presidential Documents 8793 (Jan. 27, 2017)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ]

  Executive Order 13768: Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 25, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:17−cv−05228−NGG−JO (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0055-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/11/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint For Declaratory and Injunctive Relief [ECF# 1]
IM-NY-0055-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/06/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
First Amended Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief [ECF# 54]
IM-NY-0055-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/04/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Notice of Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 71]
IM-NY-0055-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/27/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum & Order [ECF# 85] (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0055-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/09/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiff States' Notice of Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 96]
IM-NY-0055-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/15/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief for We Dream in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for a Preliminary Injunction and in Opposition to Defendants' Motions to Dismiss [ECF# 120]
IM-NY-0055-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/20/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief of 114 Companies in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 132]
IM-NY-0055-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief of Partnership for Educational Justice, DelawareCan: the Delaware Campaign for Achievement Now, HawaiiKidsCan, NewMexicoKidsCan, and Virginia Excels in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 133]
IM-NY-0055-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of 40 Historians and the Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equity, as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 149]
IM-NY-0055-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Law Enforcement Leaders in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for a Preliminary Injunction and in Opposition to Defendants' Motions to Dismiss [ECF# 155]
IM-NY-0055-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Service Employees International Union, et al. as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs [ECF# 158]
IM-NY-0055-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Legal Services Organizations as Amici Curiae Regarding Harm to Their Clients and the Public Interest in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 162]
IM-NY-0055-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of New York University as Amicus Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 164]
IM-NY-0055-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Trial Brief of the Government of the United Mexican States as Amicus Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 168]
IM-NY-0055-0014.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum of Law Filed on Behalf of 87 Religious Organizations as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunctions [ECF# 170]
IM-NY-0055-0015.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum of Law of Amici Curiae Public Interest Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 171]
IM-NY-0055-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief of the City of Los Angeles, 27 Additional Cities and Counties, the National League of Cities and the United States Conference of Mayors in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 172]
IM-NY-0055-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Anti-Defamation League, and Other Civil Rights and Social Justice Organizations, as Amici Curiae in Support of the Plaintiff States' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 174]
IM-NY-0055-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Memorandum & Order & Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 209] (279 F.Supp.3d 401) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0055-0019.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/13/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum & Order [ECF# 215] (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0055-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/29/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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Judges Garaufis, Nicholas (E.D.N.Y.) show/hide docs
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Orenstein, James (E.D.N.Y.) [Magistrate] show/hide docs
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Plaintiff's Lawyers Balderas, Hector (New Mexico) show/hide docs
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Bass Ehler, Karyn L. (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Battles, Benjamin D. (Vermont) show/hide docs
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Bender, Robyn R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Biernoff, Ari (New Mexico) show/hide docs
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Blake, Nathanael (Iowa) show/hide docs
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Chien, Marsha (Washington) show/hide docs
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Chin, Douglas S.G. (Hawaii) show/hide docs
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Cohen, Aleine (Delaware) show/hide docs
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Crane, Anna (Illinois) show/hide docs
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De Haan, Brian (Oregon) show/hide docs
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Denn, Matthew P. (Delaware) show/hide docs
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Donovan, Thomas J. Jr. (Vermont) show/hide docs
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Ferguson, Robert W. (Washington) show/hide docs
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Field, Michael W. (Rhode Island) show/hide docs
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Finkelstein, Alex (New York) show/hide docs
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Fischer, Michael J. (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Goldman, Jonathan Scott (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Goldstein, Aaron R. (Delaware) show/hide docs
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Healey, Maura T. (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
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Herring, Mark R. (Virginia) show/hide docs
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Hickenlooper, John W. (Colorado) show/hide docs
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Jepsen, George (Connecticut) show/hide docs
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Kalama, Donna H. (Hawaii) show/hide docs
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Kaplan, Scott J. (Oregon) show/hide docs
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Khan, Sania (New York) show/hide docs
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Khera, Harpreet (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Kilmartin, Peter F. (Rhode Island) show/hide docs
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Kohler, Mark F. (Connecticut) show/hide docs
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Lucas, Diane (New York) show/hide docs
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Lusk, Jennie (New Mexico) show/hide docs
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Madigan, Lisa (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Maestas, Tania (New Mexico) show/hide docs
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McEllis, Caitlyn (Illinois) show/hide docs
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McGuire, Matthew R. (Virginia) show/hide docs
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Melmed, Jacki Cooper (Colorado) show/hide docs
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Melody, Colleen (Washington) show/hide docs
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Miller, Jonathan B. (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
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Miller, Thomas J. (Iowa) show/hide docs
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Nadeau, Genevieve (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
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Nannery, Valerie M (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Narasimham, Sripriya (North Carolina) show/hide docs
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Partington, Rebecca Tedford (Rhode Island) show/hide docs
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Racine, Karl A. (Maryland) show/hide docs
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Roach, Adam D. (Rhode Island) show/hide docs
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Rosado, Lourdes Maria (New York) show/hide docs
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Rosenblum, Ellen F. (Oregon) show/hide docs
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Saini, Ajay (New York) show/hide docs
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Schneiderman, Eric T. (New York) show/hide docs
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Shapiro, Josh (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Stein, Josh (North Carolina) show/hide docs
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Taylor, Abigail B. (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
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Thompson, Jeffrey S. (Iowa) show/hide docs
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Thompson, Julio A. (Vermont) show/hide docs
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Tucker, Brooke (New York) show/hide docs
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VanDam, Jeff (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Weston, Sarah (Oregon) show/hide docs
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Defendant's Lawyers Bailey, Kate (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Marutollo, Joseph Anthony (New York) show/hide docs
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Pezzi, Stephen M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Ricketts, Jennifer (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Rohde, Bridget M. (New York) show/hide docs
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Tyler, John Russell (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Westmoreland, Rachael (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Other Lawyers Alger, Maureen P. (California) show/hide docs
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Badlani, Chirag (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Berner, Nicole (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Bohorquez, Fernando A. (New York) show/hide docs
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Brounell, Geoffrey S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Calemine, Jody (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Carome, Patrick J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Chang, Robert S. (Washington) show/hide docs
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Clark, James Patrick (California) show/hide docs
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Coston, William D. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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DeGroote, Jessa (New York) show/hide docs
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DiGrande, Melissa (New York) show/hide docs
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Dundas, Michael Joseph (California) show/hide docs
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Ferguson, Ashley C. (New York) show/hide docs
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Feuer, Michael Nelson (California) show/hide docs
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Fiur, Seth D. (New York) show/hide docs
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Fresco, Leon (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Geltzer, Joshua A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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