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Case Name Batalla Vidal v. Nielsen IM-NY-0051
Docket / Court 1:16-cv-04756 ( E.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Special Collection Civil Rights Challenges to Trump Immigration Enforcement Orders
Take Care
Attorney Organization Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization (Yale)
National Immigration Law Center
Case Summary
On August 25, 2016, a Mexican-born Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipient living in New York filed this suit against U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The plaintiff, represented by Make the Road New ... read more >
On August 25, 2016, a Mexican-born Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipient living in New York filed this suit against U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York. The plaintiff, represented by Make the Road New York, the National Immigration Law Center, and the Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization, sued under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) and 5 U.S.C. § 551, alleging that the revocation of his employment authorization was unlawful, and seeking declaratory and injunctive relief to have the authorization reinstated. He also sought an award for reasonable attorney’s fees and costs.

Specifically, the plaintiff claimed that USCIS had granted the plaintiff a three-year employment authorization under DACA, which had been expanded by the Obama administration in 2014. That authorization was revoked pursuant to a nationwide injunction granted by the U.S. District Court in United States v. Texas (IM-TX-0034 in this Clearinghouse), enjoining the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) from implementing the expansion of DACA, which had allowed the grant or renewal of deferred action and three-year employment authorization to individuals such as the plaintiff. In place of the three-year employment authorization, the plaintiff was issued a two-year authorization, which would require the plaintiff to go through the burdensome application process more frequently than under the expansion plan. The plaintiff claimed that the United States v. Texas court had issued an overly broad injunction and lacked jurisdiction to bind New York residents, and that revocation of his three-year employment authorization violated the APA.

The case was assigned to Judge Nicholas G. Garaufis and Magistrate Judge James Orenstein. The plaintiff filed an amended complaint on September 29, 2016. Further proceedings were then postponed until briefing was completed, and there was no further activity in the case until Feb. 2017. On Apr. 5, the court granted the parties' joint motion to stay the briefing schedule indefinitely pending proceedings in the U.S. v. Texas case.

Nothing significant happened until Sept. 5, 2017, when the Trump administration revoked DACA. That day, the plaintiffs moved for a pre-motion conference, which the court immediately granted. The plaintiffs stated that they wanted leave to amend their complaint. The plaintiffs highlighted that "[m]illions of people have benefited from, and relied on, the DACA program over the past five years," including the DACA recipients themselves and those close to them. As a result, the plaintiffs argued that "the Government has failed to provide a reasoned explanation for its reversal, in violation of the [Administrative Procedure Act]" and that "the Administration’s reversal is unconstitutionally motivated by anti-Mexican and anti-Latino animus, in violation of equal protection component of the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment." Pursuant to a Sept. 7 court order, the plaintiffs filed a letter on Sept. 11 stating the additional claims they planned to assert in an amended complaint, the interests of individual parties they want to add as plaintiffs, and additional defendants they wanted to name. The letter asserted additional claims that the government violated the APA, the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and Fifth Amendment equal protection and due process. The plaintiffs also stated they were seeking to add as plaintiffs individuals with current DACA status, and as defendants the President Trump, the Acting Secretary of Homeland Security (Elaine Duke), and the Attorney General (Jeff Sessions).

The plaintiffs filed that amended complaint on Sept. 19. In addition to including the aforementioned changes, the amended complaint also requested class certification for a "class consisting of (1) all persons with DACA as of September 5, 2017; and (2) all persons who are or will be eligible for DACA under the terms of the 2012 Guidance" for all claims except the Regulatory Flexibility Act claim. Also on that day, the plaintiffs gave notice of voluntarily dismissing the defendants named in the original complaint.

On Oct. 6, the defendants filed the administrative record, which included a series of government documents pertaining to DACA from its inception up to the decision to rescind it. The plaintiffs then moved to compel the defendants to complete the administrative record, arguing that the defendants did not produce all relevant documents leading to the rescission. Specifically, they omitted related documents that Acting Secretary Duke did not directly review. The court granted the motion on Oct. 19.

The defendants appealed to the Second Circuit, which granted an emergency motion for a stay of discovery and record supplementation in the district court pending consideration by the Second Circuit on Oct. 20.

On Oct. 27, the defendants moved to dismiss the case, arguing that the rescission was an enforcement action "presumed immune from judicial review" and that the government provided ample explanation for the rescission based on the enjoinment of DAPA (Deferred Action for Parents of Americans) in U.S. v. Texas. On Nov. 9, the court granted in part and denied in part the motion. The court dismissed the plaintiffs' claim that the government violated due process by failing to provide individualized notice of the rescission because the plaintiffs lacked standing. The court did find, however, that the plaintiffs had standing to challenge the DACA rescission. The court reserved ruling on the government's motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim and denied all other parts of its motion.

On Dec. 11, the plaintiffs filed an amended complaint, naming Kirstjen M. Nielsen as a defendant in her capacity as the Secretary of DHS. They filed motions for preliminary injunction and class certification on Dec. 15. The plaintiffs wanted to enjoin the rescission and certify a class defined as: "(1) all persons with deferred action through DACA as of September 5, 2017; and (2) all persons who are or will be eligible for deferred action under the terms of the original DACA guidance issued by DHS in 2012; (3) except the individual recipients of, or applicants for, deferred action through DACA who are Plaintiffs in other actions challenging the DACA Termination pending in a U.S. District Court as of December 11, 2017."

The government moved to dismiss the new complaint on Dec. 26.

Meanwhile, a series of entities filed amicus briefs. The following entities filed in support of the plaintiffs: over 100 companies, educational justice organizations, Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality, historians, public education groups, law enforcement leaders, workers' organizations, legal services organizations, New York University, Latino/a services and support organizations, the Mexican government, dozens of religious organizations, immigration nonprofits, various U.S. cities and counties, and civil rights organizations.

On Dec. 27, the Second Circuit denied the government's petition for mandamus and lifted the district court's stay on discovery. Seeking to appeal the court's Nov. 9, 2017 decision, two days later, the government moved to stay further supplementation of the administrative record in the district court in light of its pending filing of a "petition for writ of mandamus challenging the scope of the administrative record and discovery in these matters." The court granted the motion on Dec. 30 pending consideration of the government's motion for certification of interlocutory appeal of the Nov. 9 order. On Jan. 8, the court granted the government's motion for certification of interlocutory appeal and stayed further proceedings pending resolution in the Second Circuit. The government appealed the Nov. 9 order that day.

On Jan. 31, 2018, the Second Circuit ordered that the petitions for leave to appeal be held in abeyance while the district court resolved the motions for injunctive relief and dismissal.

On Feb. 13, 2018, the district court granted the preliminary injunction, holding that the government had not provided a legally sufficient basis for ending the DACA program. The court found that while the government could end DACA, the question was whether they provided the necessary legally adequate reasons for the rescission. The court found that the decision to end the program was based on an erroneous conclusion that DACA was unconstitutional and violated the APA and the Immigration & Nationality Act (INA), and that this conclusion in turn relied on the "plainly incorrect factual premise" that courts have found the related DAPA program to have "constitutional defects." The court also found that the purported reason for rescission was contradictory in that the government claimed DACA must end because it was unconstitutional and yet also provided for a wind-down period in which certain DACA renewal applications would continue to be adjudicated. As a result, the court held that the rescission was arbitrary and capricious and enjoined the government from ending the program on a nationwide basis pending the court's decision on the merits of the case. In the same order, the court also denied the plaintiffs' motion for class certification as moot.

The government filed notice on Feb. 20 that it had appealed the preliminary injunction to the Second Circuit.

On March 29, 2018, the district court granted in part and denied in part the government's motion to dismiss. The court dismissed the plaintiffs' claim that the rescission violated the APA's requirement for notice-and-comment, finding that the rescission memorandum was a general statement of policy exempt from the notice-and-comment requirement rather than a legislative rule. This finding led the court to further dismiss the plaintiffs' claim regarding Regulatory Flexibility Act violations since an RFA violation is contingent on a notice-and-comment requirement in the first place. The court also dismissed the plaintiffs' claim that the government changed its information-use policy but left the door open to other challenges of that policy. The court sustained the plaintiffs' equal protection claim that the rescission was motivated by racial animus against Latinos, finding that the plaintiffs adequately alleged the rescission had a disparate impact. Further, the court found that while the plaintiffs may not have sufficiently alleged that Acting Secretary Duke or the Attorney General had discriminatory intent, they did sufficiently allege that President Trump may have had such intent and that his influence on the rescission cannot be ignored.

The government appealed the decision to the Second Circuit.

The case is ongoing.

Nicholas Hazen - 02/02/2017
Virginia Weeks - 03/30/2018
Sam Kulhanek - 04/14/2019


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Benefit Source
DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief granted
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Immigration/Border
Employment
Status/Classification
Work authorization - criteria
Work authorization - procedures
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Defendant(s) United States Citizenship and Immigration Services
Plaintiff Description A Mexican-born DACA recipient and twenty-year resident of New York, studying to become a medical assistant.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization (Yale)
National Immigration Law Center
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Moot
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Source of Relief Litigation
Filing Year 2016
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing IM-TX-0034 : State of Texas v. United States (S.D. Tex.)
IM-NY-0055 : State of New York v. Trump (E.D.N.Y.)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  Batalla Vidal v. Baran
https://law.yale.edu
Date: Sep. 6, 2017
By: Yale Law School
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Memorandum on Rescission Of Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
www.dhs.gov
Date: Sep. 5, 2017
By: Department of Homeland Security
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Implementation of Executive Order 13768, "Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
The Washington Post
Date: May 22, 2017
By: Jefferson Sessions (U.S. Department of Justice)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Implementing the President's Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements Policies (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Enforcement of the Immigration Laws to Serve the National Interest (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Executive Order 13767: Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 27, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
Citation: 82 Fed. Reg. Presidential Documents 8793 (Jan. 27, 2017)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ]

  Executive Order 13768: Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 25, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:16−cv−04756−NGG−JO (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0051-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/29/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint [ECF# 1]
IM-NY-0051-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/25/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Complaint [ECF# 29]
IM-NY-0051-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/29/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Re: Batalla Vidal v. Baran [ECF# 46]
IM-NY-0051-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Re: Batalla Vidal v. Baran [ECF# 52]
IM-NY-0051-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/11/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Re: Batalla Vidal v. Baran [ECF# 56]
IM-NY-0051-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/13/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Second Amended Complaint [ECF# 60]
IM-NY-0051-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/19/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Notice of Voluntary Dismal Pursuant to F.R.C.P. 41(a)(1)(A)(i) [ECF# 61]
IM-NY-0051-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/19/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Notice of Filing of Administrative Record [ECF# 77]
IM-NY-0051-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/06/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Notice of Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 95]
IM-NY-0051-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/27/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum & Order [ECF# 104] (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0051-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/09/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Third Amended Complaint [ECF# 113]
IM-NY-0051-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/11/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 123]
IM-NY-0051-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/15/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Class Certification [ECF# 124]
IM-NY-0051-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/15/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief of 114 Companies in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 160]
IM-NY-0051-0014.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief of Partnership for Educational Justice, DelawareCan: the Delaware Campaign for Achievement Now, HawaiiKidsCan, NewMexicoKidsCan, and Virginia Excels in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 161]
IM-NY-0051-0015.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of 40 Historians and the Fred T. Korematsu Center for Law and Equality, as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 179]
IM-NY-0051-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Public Education Groups as Amicus Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 180]
IM-NY-0051-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief Amici Curiae of Current and Former Law Enforcement Leaders in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for a Preliminary Injunction and in Opposition to Defendants' Motions to Dismiss [ECF# 188]
IM-NY-0051-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Service Employees International Union, et al. as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs [ECF# 190]
IM-NY-0051-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Legal Services Organizations as Amici Curiae Regarding Harm to Their Clients and the Public Interest in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 193]
IM-NY-0051-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of New York University as Amicus Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 195]
IM-NY-0051-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of LatinoJustice PRLDEF, et al. as Amicus Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 199]
IM-NY-0051-0022.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Trial Brief of the Government of the United Mexican States as Amicus Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 200]
IM-NY-0051-0023.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum of Law Filed on Behalf of 87 Religious Organizations as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunctions [ECF# 201]
IM-NY-0051-0024.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum of Law of Amici Curiae Public Interest Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 202]
IM-NY-0051-0025.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Brief of the City of Los Angeles, 27 Additional Cities and Counties, the National League of Cities and the United States Conference of Mayors in Support of Plaintiffs' Motions for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 204]
IM-NY-0051-0026.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Anti-Defamation League, and Other Civil Rights and Social Justice Organizations, as Amici Curiae in Support of the Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 206]
IM-NY-0051-0027.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/22/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[USCA Order] [Ct. of App. ECF# 210]
IM-NY-0051-0028.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/27/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Memorandum & Order & Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 255] (279 F.Supp.3d 401) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0051-0029.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/13/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum & Order [ECF# 260] (291 F.Supp.3d 260) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0051-0030.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 03/29/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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