University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
new search
page permalink
Case Name State of Texas v. United States IM-TX-0034
Docket / Court 1:14-cv-00254 ( S.D. Tex. )
State/Territory Texas
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Case Summary
On Dec. 3, 2014, in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, fourteen states (South Dakota, Louisiana, Alabama, Texas, West Virginia, Kansas, Georgia, Nebraska, Utah, Wisconsin, Montana, Idaho, South Carolina, and Indiana) and four governors (of Mississippi, Maine, North Carolina, ... read more >
On Dec. 3, 2014, in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, fourteen states (South Dakota, Louisiana, Alabama, Texas, West Virginia, Kansas, Georgia, Nebraska, Utah, Wisconsin, Montana, Idaho, South Carolina, and Indiana) and four governors (of Mississippi, Maine, North Carolina, and Idaho) sued the U.S. government for violations of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) and the Take Care Clause of the U.S. Constitution, seeking injunctive and declaratory relief. The original plaintiffs were later joined in the suit by Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and the Attorney General of Michigan. The lawsuit claimed that President Obama had "unilaterally suspend[ed] the immigration laws as applied to 4 million of the 11 million" undocumented immigrants in the United States.

Specifically, plaintiffs challenged the executive's intended expansion of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) -- the deportation reprieve offered to undocumented immigrants who arrived in the U.S. as children -- and the intended creation of Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) -- a temporary deportation reprieve for undocumented parents of U.S. citizens and lawful residents. Plaintiffs alleged that these executive actions amounted to an unlawful suspension of the nation's immigration laws, in violation of the Take Care Clause of the Constitution, and that the policies were arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, and issued without regulatory authority or the required notice and opportunity for public comment, in violation of the APA. The case was assigned to District Judge Andrew S. Hanen.

Three Jane Does sought to intervene to defend the legality of DACA and DAPA. The Jane Does were noncitizens who had lived in the United States for more than ten years with minor children, seeking to benefit from the executive actions. But on Feb. 11, 2015, Judge Hanen denied intervention. They appealed on March 9, 2015. On Nov. 9, 2015, in an opinion by Circuit Judge Jennifer Walker Elrod, the Fifth Circuit reversed and remanded the case to the district court, holding that the Jane Does satisfied the necessary requirements for intervention. 805 F.3d 653 (5th Cir. 2015).

The program was set to take effect on Feb. 18, 2015, but on Feb. 16, Judge Hanen granted plaintiffs' request for a preliminary injunction, holding that the U.S. had failed to comply with the APA. Finding that the administration's programs would impose major burdens on states, encourage illegal immigration and strain state budgets, and that the administration had not followed required procedures for changing federal rules, the Court enjoined the government from implementing the expansion of the deferred action program, which was to take effect on Feb. 18, pending the final resolution of the case. 86 F. Supp. 3d 591, 677 (S.D. Tex. 2015).

On Feb. 23, 2015, the U.S. appealed the district court's order to the Fifth Circuit. On the same day, the U.S. asked the district court to stay its order pending appeal to allow the expanded program to go into effect. In April, however, the district court denied the stay; the government then sought a stay from the Fifth Circuit. After briefing and oral argument, a motions panel (Judges Smith, Elrod, and Higginson) denied the stay; an opinion by Judge Smith declared that the appeal was unlikely to succeed on its merits. Texas v. United States, 787 F.3d 733, 743 (5th Cir. 2015). Judge Higginson dissented. The appeal then proceeded before Judges King, Smith, and Elrod. In another opinion by Judge Smith, the Fifth Circuit affirmed the preliminary injunction on Nov. 9, 2015, this time with a strong dissent by Judge King. The court held that the states had standing; the matter was justiciable; the program should have been the subject of notice-and-comment rulemaking, and was in any event beyond the authority granted by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); and that the states had satisfied the other elements required for an injunction (substantial threat of irreparable injury; balance of harms; public interest). Judge King dissented on all of these issues. 809 F.3d 134 (5th Cir. 2015).

The U.S. sought certiorari review in the Supreme Court in a petition filed just a few days later, on Nov. 20, 2015: the speedy petition was to try to enable the Court to complete review of the case before the end of the 2015 term (that is, by the end of June 2016). On Jan. 20, 2016, the Court granted review. The case was argued in the Supreme Court on Apr. 18, 2016, two months after the death of Justice Antonin Scalia. The Supreme Court was divided 4-4 on the issue, so on June 23, 2016, the Court issued a per curiam order affirming the Fifth Circuit without opinion. 136 S.Ct. 2271. The U.S. petitioned for a rehearing.

Back in the District Court, on May 19, 2016, Judge Hanen addressed alleged misconduct by DOJ lawyers. (DOJ had lawyers told the Court that the new DACA/DAPA programs were not being implemented. In fact, as they later informed the Court, most of the new provisions were indeed stayed, but DHS had begun to grant 3-year extensions of DACA status, rather than the prior program’s 2-year extensions.) Judge Hanen ordered all DOJ lawyers admitted to practice in any of the plaintiff states to take a continuing legal education program centered around ethics, led by non-DOJ teachers. The Court also stated that due to the conduct of the lawyers, it would seek to revoke the pro hac vice status of the out-of-state lawyers who had appeared before it. Finally, the Court ordered DOJ to provide the Court with a list of all the DACA applicants so he could consider giving that list to the plaintiff states. This list would have included tens of thousands of immigrant youths who received three-year DACA grants between Nov. 2014 and Feb. 2015.

The U.S. immediately sought a stay in the district court, and a stay and mandamus in the Fifth Circuit. On June 7, 2016, Judge Hanen stayed his own address disclosure and ethics order.

In an Aug. 31, 2016 status conference, the parties agreed that the district court should continue the stay until the Supreme Court ruled on the U.S.'s petition for rehearing. Once the Supreme Court denied this petition on Oct. 3, Judge Hanen ordered the parties to confer on a scheduling order. They did so, and returned to the court on Nov. 18 with a proposal to stay proceedings on the merits of the plaintiffs' claims until Feb. 20, 2017, following the installation of the Trump administration.

On Jan. 19, 2017 -- the day before the Trump inauguration -- Judge Hanen revisited the issue of the sanctions against DOJ lawyers. After extensively criticizing DOJ's alleged misconduct, Judge Hanen let stand his May 19, 2016 opinion but withdrew the sanctions order because no harm had ensued from the conduct.

On Mar. 22, 2017, Judge Hanen granted the parties' request to stay the merits proceedings. Over the next several months, Judge Hanen granted several continuances of the stay, since the U.S. had not yet changed its guidance on DACA or DAPA.

After DHS issued guidelines phasing out DACA and expanded-DACA and rescinding DAPA, on Sept. 12, 2017 plaintiffs filed a stipulation of voluntary dismissal.

This case is now closed.

Rebecca Eisenbrey - 03/10/2015
- 11/20/2015
Matt Ramirez - 06/25/2016
Ava Morgenstern - 01/28/2018


compress summary

- click to show/hide ALL -
Issues and Causes of Action
click to show/hide detail
Issues
Benefit Source
DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)
Constitutional Clause
Federalism
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief granted
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
General
Classification / placement
Drivers Licenses
Education
Family reunification
Funding
Government Services (specify)
Public assistance grants
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Records Disclosure
Immigration/Border
Deportation - criteria
Deportation - judicial review
Employment
Family
Status/Classification
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
Undocumented immigrants - state and local regulation
Work authorization - criteria
Work authorization - procedures
Plaintiff Type
State Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. §§ 1101 et seq.
Mandamus, 28 U.S.C. § 1361
Defendant(s) The United States of America
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Plaintiff Description Twenty-two states, one state AG, and four governors.
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement Voluntary Dismissal
Order Duration 2015 - n/a
Filing Year 2014
Case Closing Year 2017
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing IM-NY-0051 : Batalla Vidal v. Nielsen (E.D.N.Y.)
Additional Resources
click to show/hide detail
  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  Resources on the Lawsuit Challenging DAPA and DACA Expansion
www.aila.org
Date: Sep. 8, 2017
By: American Immigration Lawyers Association (AILA)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  United States v. Texas
http://www.scotusblog.com
Date: Jun. 23, 2016
By: SCOTUSblog
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  United States v. State of Texas
www.nilc.org
Date: Mar. 14, 2016
By: National Immigration Law Center (NILC)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:14-cv-254 (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/08/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief [ECF# 1]
IM-TX-0034-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/03/2014
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief [ECF# 14]
IM-TX-0034-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/09/2014
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 38]
IM-TX-0034-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/24/2014
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Exhibits to Defendants' Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 38-1]
IM-TX-0034-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/24/2014
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order of Temporary Injunction [ECF# 144] (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/16/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 145] (2015 WL 648579) (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0004.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 02/16/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 225] (2015 WL 1540152) (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0010.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 04/07/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 226] (2015 WL 1540022) (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0011.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 04/07/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Jane Does 1-3 as Amicus Curiae in Support of Appellants, Supporting Reversal [Ct. of App. ECF# 00512994979]
IM-TX-0034-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/16/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion [Ct. of App. ECF# 00513054621] (787 F.3d 733)
IM-TX-0034-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/26/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion [Ct. of App. ECF# 00513264639] (805 F.3d 653)
IM-TX-0034-0014.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/09/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion [Ct. of App. ECF# 00513264640] (809 F.3d 134)
IM-TX-0034-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/09/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Petition for a Writ of Certiorari
IM-TX-0034-0009.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 11/20/2015
USCA Opinion [Ct. of App. ECF# 338] (808 F.3d 675)
IM-TX-0034-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/12/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion [Ct. of App. ECF# 346]
IM-TX-0034-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/19/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 347] (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/19/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
On Writ of Certiorari to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (136 S.Ct. 2271)
IM-TX-0034-0017.pdf | WESTLAW | External Link | Detail
Date: 06/23/2016
Source: Supreme Court website
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 434] (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/19/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 471] (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/08/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs' Stipulation of Voluntary Dismissal [ECF# 473]
IM-TX-0034-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/12/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
show all people docs
Judges Davis, W. Eugene (W.D. La., Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0013
Elrod, Jennifer Walker (Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0014 | IM-TX-0034-0015
Hanen, Andrew S. (S.D. Tex.) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0003 | IM-TX-0034-0004 | IM-TX-0034-0010 | IM-TX-0034-0011 | IM-TX-0034-0016 | IM-TX-0034-0018 | IM-TX-0034-0019 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Higginbotham, Patrick Errol (N.D. Tex., Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0012 | IM-TX-0034-0013
Higginson, Stephen Andrew (Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0015
Jolly, E. Grady (Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0013
King, Carolyn Dineen (Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0008
Owen, Priscilla Richman (Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0012
Smith, Jerry Edwin (Fifth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0008 | IM-TX-0034-0012 | IM-TX-0034-0015
Plaintiff's Lawyers Abbott, Greg (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Barker, John Campbell (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Biggs, Adam Arthur (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
Bitter, Adam Nicholas (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Blacklock, James D. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Bondi, Pamela Jo (Florida) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
Bruning, Jon (Nebraska) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Caldwell, James David (Louisiana) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Carswell, Dwight (Kansas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Chapelle, Joseph C. (Indiana) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Colmenero, Angela Veronica (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
D'Andrea, Arthur C. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
DeWine, Michael (Ohio) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
Fox, Timothy C. (Montana) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Hodge, Daniel (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Horne, Thomas C. (Arizona) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
Hudson, Eric Alan (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Jackley, Marty J. (South Dakota) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Keller, Scott A. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Lennington, Daniel P (Wisconsin) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Lopez, David A. (Nebraska) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Margulies, Peter (Rhode Island) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Mateer, Jeffrey C. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
McDaniel, Dustin (Arkansas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
McLean, Carlisle (Maine) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001
Mitchell, Jonathan F. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Morrisey, Patrick (West Virginia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Murphy, Eric E (Ohio) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Oldham, Andrew S. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Olens, Samuel (Georgia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Paxton, Ken (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
Perry, Thomas C (Idaho) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Post, Ryan S (Nebraska) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Pruitt, E. Scott (Oklahoma) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
Reyes, Sean D. (Utah) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Rusthoven, Peter J (Indiana) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Schmidt, Derek (Kansas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Schuette, Bill (Michigan) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
Snyder, Drew (Michigan) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Starr, Brantley D. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
Stenehjem, Wayne (North Dakota) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0002
Stephens, Robert C. (North Carolina) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Strange, Luther J (Alabama) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Van Hollen, J.B. (Wisconsin) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Wasden, Lawrence G. (Idaho) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Wilson, Alan (South Carolina) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Wyrick, Patrick (Oklahoma) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Younger, Cally Ann (Idaho) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Brinkmann, Beth S (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Bunnell, Stevan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Clair, Jeffrey (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Cohen, Bradley H. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Freeny, Kyle Renee (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0006 | IM-TX-0034-0007 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Gilligan, James J (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Halainen, Daniel (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
Hartnett, Kathleen R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Havemann, William Ernest (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Hu, Daniel David (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Kirschner, Adam D. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Kneedler, Edwin S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Letter, Douglas (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Martinez, Abe (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
McIntosh, Scott R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Mizer, Benjamin C. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Readler, Chad A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
Ricketts, Jennifer (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Saltman, Julie Shana (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020
Schwei, Daniel (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Tripp, Zachary D. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Tyler, John Russell (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Verrilli, Donald B. Jr. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0009
Other Lawyers Badlani, Chirag (Illinois) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Dearing, Richard (New York) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
DeNeve, Jose Jorge (California) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Egeler, Anne Elizabeth (Washington) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Herren, Mitchell Lee (Kansas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Hethmon, Michael M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
KohSweeney, Adam P (California) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Markoff, Gabriel (California) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Martinez, Antonio Tony (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Moseley, Jonathon Alden (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Olson, Leif A. (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Perales, Nina (Texas) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-0005 | IM-TX-0034-0020 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Sekulow, Jay Alan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Shapiro, Ilya (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Smith, Linda Jane (California) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Taitz, Orly (California) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Weissglass, Jonathan (California) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000
Wilcox, Dale L. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-TX-0034-9000

- click to show/hide ALL -

new search
page permalink

- top of page -