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Case Name 30 Related School Desegregation Cases in the Southern District of Mississippi SD-MS-0035
Docket / Court docket unknown ( S.D. Miss. )
State/Territory Mississippi
Case Type(s) School Desegregation
Attorney Organization NAACP Legal Defense Fund
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Case Summary
In this early school desegregation matter, the judges of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi decided to address certain issues together, sitting en banc. They decided twenty-five school desegregation cases together, holding that freedom of choice plans were acceptable ... read more >
In this early school desegregation matter, the judges of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi decided to address certain issues together, sitting en banc. They decided twenty-five school desegregation cases together, holding that freedom of choice plans were acceptable to desegregate public schools. On appeal, the Fifth Circuit held in United States v. Hinds County School Board that freedom of choice plans were not an appropriate method to desegregate the schools because no white students had ever attended any of the traditionally black schools in the districts and every school district included in the appeal continued to maintain all-black schools. The cases were remanded to the district court and schools were ordered to establish new desegregation plans that used methods other than the freedom of choice plans. 417 F.2d 852 (5th Cir. 1969) (per curiam).

The cases returned to the Fifth Circuit, with five more cases added to the appeal, after the Supreme Court’s decision in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education. In Alexander, the Supreme Court held that “school districts . . . may no longer operate a dual school system based on race or color” and they had to “begin immediately to operate as unitary school systems within which no person is to be effectively excluded from any school because of race or color.” The Supreme Court remanded cases back to the Fifth Circuit to ensure school districts complied with its order in Alexander. 396 U.S. 19 (1969).

The Fifth Circuit ordered that permanent school desegregation plans from the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) were to be immediately enforced. Some of the school districts’ plans were modified by the Fifth Circuit. 423 F.2d 1264 (5th Cir. 1969) (per curiam).

In unavailable district court opinions, the district court modified the desegregation plans. The Fifth Circuit reviewed the plans on appeal and also modified/adopted updated desegregation plans.

Throughout the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, many of the school districts submitted annual reports to the court. Some of the school districts remain under court monitoring as of May 2017, while others have achieved unitary status and the desegregation orders have been dismissed.

Available Opinions

United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 417 F.2d 852 (5th Cir. 1969) (per curiam), cert. denied, 396 U.S. 1032 (1970).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 423 F.2d 1264 (5th Cir. 1969) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 433 F.2d 598 (5th Cir. 1970) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 433 F.2d 602 (5th Cir. 1970) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 433 F.2d 605 (5th Cir. 1970) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 433 F.2d 611 (5th Cir. 1970) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 433 F.2d 619 (5th Cir. 1970) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 433 F.2d 622 (5th Cir. 1970) (per curiam).
United States v. Hinds Cty. Sch. Bd., 516 F.2d 974 (5th Cir. 1975) (per curiam).

Amelia Huckins - 05/14/2017


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Busing
Develop anti-discrimination policy
Discrimination Prohibition
Monitoring
Other requirements regarding hiring, promotion, retention
Recordkeeping
Reporting
Student assignment
Defendant-type
Elementary/Secondary School
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-area
Zoning
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Buildings
Disparate Treatment
Education
Language/ethnic/minority needs
Racial segregation
School/University Facilities
School/University policies
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Transportation
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Black
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) Amite County School District
Anguilla Line School District
Canton Municipal School District
Columbia Municipal Separate School
Covington County School District
Enterprise Consolidated School District
Forrest County School District
Franklin County School District
Hinds County School Board
Holly Bluff Schools
Holmes County Board of Education
Issaquena County Board of Education
Kemper County School Board
Lauderdale County School District
Lawrence County School District
Leake County School Board
Lincoln County School District
Madison County School District
Marion County School District
Meridian Separate School District
Natchez Special Municipal Separate School District
Neshoba County School District
North Pike Consolidated School District
Noxubee County School District
Philadelphia Municipal Separate School District
Quitman School District
South Delta School District
South Pike Consolidated School District
Wilkinson County School District
Yazoo County Board of Education
Plaintiff Description Plaintiffs were private citizens residing in towns across the Southern District of Mississippi and the United States Department of Justice.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations NAACP Legal Defense Fund
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing SD-MS-0032 : U.S. v. Hinds County School District (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0019 : United States of America et al v. Lawrence County School (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0028 : Harris v. Yazoo County Board of Education (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0011 : Hudson v. Leake County School District (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0002 : United States v. Amite County School District (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0008 : United States v. Covington County School District (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0018 : US vs. Lincoln County School District (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0020 : United States of America v. Philadelphia Municipal Separate School District (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0014 : United States of America v. Franklin County School District (S.D. Miss.)
Docket(s)
cv-1368 (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9004.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/18/1974
Source: Pro Publica
3:68-cv-04294-UNA (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/09/1981
Source: Pro Publica
3:68-cv-04256-UNA (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9001.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/09/1981
Source: Pro Publica
3:66-cv-03983-WHB-LRA (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9003.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/26/1985
3:68-cv-04256-UNA (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9002.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/10/2011
Source: Pro Publica
General Documents
Order and Opinion (417 F.2d 852)
SD-MS-0035-0001.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/03/1969
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (423 F.2d 1264)
SD-MS-0035-0002.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/07/1969
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (433 F.2d 598)
SD-MS-0035-0003.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/05/1970
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (433 F.2d 602)
SD-MS-0035-0004.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/05/1970
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (433 F.2d 605)
SD-MS-0035-0005.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/05/1970
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (433 F.2d 611)
SD-MS-0035-0006.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/05/1970
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (433 F.2d 619)
SD-MS-0035-0007.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/11/1970
Source: Google Scholar
Order and Opinion (433 F.2d 622)
SD-MS-0035-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 09/10/1970
Source: Google Scholar
Judges Bell, Griffin Boyette (Fifth Circuit)
SD-MS-0035-0002 | SD-MS-0035-0003 | SD-MS-0035-0004 | SD-MS-0035-0005 | SD-MS-0035-0006 | SD-MS-0035-0007 | SD-MS-0035-0008 | SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9001
Brown, John Robert (Fifth Circuit)
SD-MS-0035-0001 | SD-MS-0035-9001
Cox, William Harold (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9001 | SD-MS-0035-9004
Keady, William Colbert (N.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9000
Morgan, Lewis Render (Eleventh Circuit, N.D. Ga., Fifth Circuit)
SD-MS-0035-0001 | SD-MS-0035-0002 | SD-MS-0035-0003 | SD-MS-0035-0004 | SD-MS-0035-0005 | SD-MS-0035-0006 | SD-MS-0035-0007 | SD-MS-0035-0008 | SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9001
Nixon, Walter Louis Jr. (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9001
Russell, Dan Monroe Jr. (S.D. Miss.)
SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9001
Thornberry, William Homer (W.D. Tex., Fifth Circuit)
SD-MS-0035-0001 | SD-MS-0035-0002 | SD-MS-0035-0003 | SD-MS-0035-0004 | SD-MS-0035-0005 | SD-MS-0035-0006 | SD-MS-0035-0007 | SD-MS-0035-0008 | SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9001
Plaintiff's Lawyers Banks, Fred L. Jr. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9000 | SD-MS-0035-9003
Doar, John (District of Columbia)
SD-MS-0035-9003 | SD-MS-0035-9004
Dougherty , Burtis M. (District of Columbia)
SD-MS-0035-9000
Hauberg, Robert E. Jr. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9003 | SD-MS-0035-9004
Katzenbach, Nicholas de B. (District of Columbia)
SD-MS-0035-9003 | SD-MS-0035-9004
Owen, D. Robert (District of Columbia)
SD-MS-0035-9003 | SD-MS-0035-9004
Defendant's Lawyers Alford, Herman (Pennsylvania)
SD-MS-0035-9004
Allain, William A. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9001
Gordon, J. D. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9003
Hewitt, W. W. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9001
Hobbs, H.W. Jr. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9000
Mill, Robert A. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9003
Watkins, Thomas H. (Mississippi)
SD-MS-0035-9003

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