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Case Name Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board SD-LA-0002
Docket / Court 5:65-cv-11055-EEF ( W.D. La. )
State/Territory Louisiana
Case Type(s) School Desegregation
Attorney Organization NAACP Legal Defense Fund
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Case Summary
This school desegregation case from Caddo Parish, Louisiana was filed in 1965 in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Louisiana, with Judge Ben Dawkins presiding. As of 2017, it is still on-going.

On May 4, 1965, the class action plaintiffs, African-American school ... read more >
This school desegregation case from Caddo Parish, Louisiana was filed in 1965 in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Louisiana, with Judge Ben Dawkins presiding. As of 2017, it is still on-going.

On May 4, 1965, the class action plaintiffs, African-American school children, brought suit against the defendants, Caddo Parish School Board, to enjoin the operation of a segregated school district. Shortly thereafter, the United States was allowed to intervene as a plaintiff. (It has remained actively involved in the case since then.)

Initially, the Board pursued a freedom-of-choice approach to desegregation. The Fifth Circuit at first approved the use of freedom of choice plans in United States v. Jefferson. 372 F.2d 836 (5th Cir. Dec. 29, 1966). And even in the wake of Green v. County School Board of New Kent County, 391 U.S. 430 (1968), in which the Supreme Court expressed frustration at the inadequacy of freedom of choice plans, the Western District continued to accept them as a viable option. See Adams v. Matthews, 401 F.2d 181 (5th Cir. Aug. 20, 1968); Conley v. Lake Charles School Board, 293 F.Supp. 84, 87 (W.D. La. Nov. 14, 1968) (including Caddo Parish). Ultimately, however, in Hall v. St. Helena Parish, a consolidated appeal of cases from across Circuit, the Fifth Circuit ordered the district courts to reverse course and solicit alternative plans from the various defendant school boards. 417 F.2d 801 (5th Cir. May 28, 1969) (including Caddo Parish).

By the early 1970s, there was a major split in the various factions of private plaintiffs, leading them to play less of an active role in the suit. During this time, the United States was involved with negotiations with the district court and the Board. In 1976, the Board filed for -- and was granted without objection -- unitary status. However, two years later, the United States moved to amend the district court's findings, claiming procedural irregularities and substantive deficiencies in the ruling. No private plaintiffs came forward to proceed with the suit, so the United States engaged in negotiations as the main plaintiff. After five years of negotiations with the Board, the parties reached an agreement and on May 5, 1981, the district court entered a consent decree that largely still governs the Board's desegregation efforts. By 1990, the district court found that the Board had met many of its targets from the 1981 consent decree; however, the Board continued to remain under court order in other areas.

As of 2017, the school system had yet to attain unitary status and the district court retained its supervision of the Board's efforts to desegregate.

Available Opinions
United States v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 372 F.2d 836 (5th Cir. Dec. 29, 1966), cert. denied, 389 U.S. 840 (1967) (consolidated cases, allowing the United States to intervene as as party in various desegregation suits)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 392 F.2d 721 (5th Cir. Mar. 27, 1968)
Hall v. St. Helena Parish School Board, 417 F.2d 801 (5th Cir. May 28, 1969) (consolidated appeal of 36 school desegregation cases; rejecting freedom of choice plan)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 421 F.2d 313 (5th Cir. Jan. 6., 1970) (reversing district court’s approval of Board’s plan and remanding)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 487 F.2d 1275 (5th Cir. Oct. 31, 1973)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 499 F.2d 914 (5th Cir. Aug. 30, 1974)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 704 F.2d 206 (5th Cir. May 6, 1983)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 735 F.2d 923 (5th Cir. July 9, 1984) (en banc)
Jones v. Caddo Parish School Board, 204 F.R.D. 97 (W.D. La. Sept. 26, 2001)

Related cases
Cavalier ex rel. Cavalier v. Caddo Parish School Board, 400 F.3d 246 (5th Cir. Mar. 1, 2005) (white student challenging denial of admission to magnet school as discriminatory)

Greg Margolis - 02/25/2017


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Busing
Discrimination Prohibition
Monitor/Master
Preliminary relief granted
Reporting
Student assignment
Defendant-type
Elementary/Secondary School
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Disparate Treatment
Education
Racial segregation
School/University Facilities
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Black
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) Caddo Parish
Plaintiff Description Plaintiffs are African-American school children in the Caddo Parish, Louisiana school system.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations NAACP Legal Defense Fund
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Declaratory Judgment
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1965 - n/a
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing SD-LA-0014 : Conley v. Lake Charles School Board, Calcasieu Parish School Board (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0026 : Hall and United States of America v. St. Helena Parish School Board (M.D. La.)
SD-LA-0037 : 29 Related School Desegregation Cases in the Western District of Louisiana (W.D. La.)
Docket(s)
65-11055 (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/20/2006
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
5:65-cv-11055-EEF (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-9001.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/19/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Brief for the United States
SD-LA-0002-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/25/1966
Source: Papers of Alexander (Sandy) Ross
Opinion (372 F.2d 836)
SD-LA-0002-0003.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 12/29/1966
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (392 F.2d 721)
SD-LA-0002-0005.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 03/27/1968
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (417 F.2d 801)
SD-LA-0002-0006.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/28/1969
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (421 F.2d 313)
SD-LA-0002-0007.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 01/06/1970
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (487 F.2d 1275)
SD-LA-0002-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/31/1973
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (499 F.2d 914)
SD-LA-0002-0009.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/30/1974
Source: Westlaw
Consent Decree (1981) [ECF# 1-2 ] (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/06/1981
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion (704 F.2d 206)
SD-LA-0002-0010.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/06/1983
Source: Google Scholar
Brief for the United States on Rehearing En Banc
SD-LA-0002-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/09/1983
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Opinion (735 F.2d 923)
SD-LA-0002-0011.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/09/1984
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (204 F.R.D. 97) (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 09/26/2001
Source: Westlaw
MINUTE ENTRY [ECF# 2] (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/23/2011
Source: Pro Publica
Judges Foote, Elizabeth Erny (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-0001 | SD-LA-0002-9001
Garwood, William Lockhart (Fifth Circuit)
SD-LA-0002-0010 | SD-LA-0002-0011
Godbold, John Cooper (Eleventh Circuit, Fifth Circuit)
SD-LA-0002-0006
Goldberg, Irving Loeb (Fifth Circuit)
SD-LA-0002-0010
Higginbotham, Patrick Errol (Fifth Circuit, N.D. Tex.)
SD-LA-0002-0011
Little, F. A. Jr. (W.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-0012
Rubin, Alvin Benjamin (Fifth Circuit, E.D. La.)
SD-LA-0002-0011
Williams, Jerre Stockton (Fifth Circuit)
SD-LA-0002-0010
Wisdom, John Minor (Fifth Circuit)
SD-LA-0002-0003
Plaintiff's Lawyers Allen, Frances O. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Cooper, Charles Justin (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0002
Doar, John (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0013 | SD-LA-0002-9000
Flanagan, William J. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-9001
Heffernan, Brian F. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Keeling, Thomas M. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Keene, J. Ransdell (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Landsberg, Brian K. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0002
Leifer, Elihu (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0013
Marshall, Franz (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-9001
Norman, David L. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0013
Owen, D. Robert (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-9000
Reynolds, William Bradford (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0002
Ross, Alexander C. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0013
Shaheen, Edward L. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-0013
Stewart, Carl E. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Stone, Jesse N. Jr. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-9000
Tureaud, A. P. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-9000
Turner, James P. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Yeomans, William R. (District of Columbia)
SD-LA-0002-0002
Defendant's Lawyers Abrams, Reginald W. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-9001
Arceneaux, M. Thomas (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-0004
Sutherland, Fred H. (Louisiana)
SD-LA-0002-0004 | SD-LA-0002-9001
Other Lawyers Lee, Wayman (Massachusetts)
SD-LA-0002-0004

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