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Case Name Catholic Social Services v. Ashcroft IM-CA-0011
Docket / Court 2:86-cv-01343-LKK-JFM ( E.D. Cal. )
State/Territory California
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Attorney Organization California Rural Legal Assistance
Center for Human Rights & Constitutional Law
Case Summary
On Nov. 12, 1986, Catholic Social Services filed this class action lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California, challenging the Immigration and Naturalization Service's ("INS") interpretation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 ("IRCA"). This case was ... read more >
On Nov. 12, 1986, Catholic Social Services filed this class action lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California, challenging the Immigration and Naturalization Service's ("INS") interpretation of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 ("IRCA"). This case was one of three "late amnesty cases" filed in the federal courts in California against the INS. The other two case were Zambrano v. INS, S-88-455 EJG (E.D.Cal.) [IM-CA-0008 of this collection] and LULAC v. INS; 2:87-cv-04757-WDK-CW (C.D.Cal.) [IM-CA-0019].

The IRCA established a one-time only amnesty program through which noncitizens could apply for lawful temporary resident status and then, after a one-year waiting period, apply for permanent residency. 8 U.S.C. §1255a. To qualify for this program, the noncitizen must have been in the United States since Jan. 1, 1982, and must have been continuously physically present in the United States except for ''brief, casual, and innocent absences,'' since Nov. 6, 1986. The INS later issued a regulation that stated if a noncitizen made any departure and subsequent reentry after Nov. 6, 1986, without prior authorization from the INS (known as "advance parole"), the noncitizen would be ineligible for legalization, no matter how brief, casual, or otherwise innocent the absence. As a result of this regulation, the INS rejected applications submitted by noncitizens who had traveled abroad for brief periods during the required period of continuous residence without obtaining advance parole. Plaintiffs challenged the legality of the "advance parole" provision. They sought declaratory and injunctive relief.

The Catholic Social Services case resulted in litigation that spanned more than 20 years and produced a complicated procedural history of appeals to and remands from the Ninth Circuit and Supreme Court. A brief synopsis of that history follows.

Shortly after suit was filed, District Court (Judge Lawrence Karlton) issued a TRO, enjoining the INS from deporting these undocumented noncitizens under IRCA. He also provisionally certified the class as all of the people who have been or may be deported or issued voluntary departure who are considered by the defendant as deportable noncitizens who can establish a prima facie claim or a nonfrivolous claim for adjustment of status to temporary resident. That order was reversed on appeal. Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Meese, 813 F.2d 1500 (E.D. Cal. 1987), opinion withdrawn and vacated, Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Meese, 820 F.2d 289 (9th Cir. 1987).

On June 17, 1987, the district court (Judge Karlton) stated that the "statutory prohibition against the exclusion of aliens applied to those who were apprehended after the effective date of the statute and whose last attempted entry into the United States occurred after the effective date of the statute," favored the grant of injunction due to the hardships of the plaintiffs and the consideration of public interest. Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Meese, 664 F.Supp. 1378 (E.D. Cal. 1987). On May 3, 1988, the court approved the amended definition of the class certification to include: "(1) All person prima facie eligible for legalization under INA § 245A who departed and reentered the U.S. without INS authorization after the enactment of IRCA following what they assert to have been a brief, casual and innocent absence from the U.S.; or (2) all persons having a non-frivolous claim to legalization under INA § 210 who reentered or attempted to reenter the U.S. without INS authorization on or after November 6, 1986." Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Meese, 685 F.Supp. 1149 (E.D. Cal. 1988).

The district court entered judgment in favor of plaintiffs, striking down the INS's advance parole rule. Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Meese, 685 F. Supp. 1149 (E.D. Cal. 1988). The Ninth Circuit affirmed. Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Thornburgh, 956 F.2d 914 (9th Cir. 1992). The case went to the Supreme Court, which vacated the district court judgment and remanded the case as it determined that some of the class members' claims were not ripe. The Court found that some class members had ripe claims, particularly those individuals whose applications had been summarily rejected by an INS legalization assistant due to perceived violations of the challenged travel regulation. (Rejection of the applications outright was known as "front-desking.") Reno v. Catholic Soc. Servs., 509 U.S. 43 (1993).

On remand, the District Court (Judge Karlton) issued a Nov. 1995 order amending the definition of the class to include:
All persons, otherwise eligible for legalization under IRCA, who, after November 6, 1986, depart or departed the United States for brief, innocent and casual absences without advance parole, and who (i) are therefore deemed ineligible for legalization, or (ii) were informed that they were ineligible to apply for legalization, or were refused by the INS or its QDEs legalization forms and for whom such information, or inability to obtain the required application forms, was a substantial cause of their failure to timely file or complete a written application.

The INS appealed the order. While the case was on appeal, Congress amended the immigration laws by enacting the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) of 1996. A provision of that Act sought to limit court review of legalization claims.

In Jan. 1998, the Ninth Circuit found that the newly enacted legislation stripped the district court of jurisdiction over plaintiffs' claims, as none of the named plaintiffs had alleged that they actually tendered an application and fee or tried to do so but had the application "front-desked." Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Reno, 134 F.3d 921 (9th Cir. 1998). The case was remanded for dismissal.

On Apr. 7, 1998, plaintiffs filed a new complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California (which was assigned case #2:98-cv-00629-LKK-JFM), which added claims of plaintiffs whose applications had been front-desked. The new complaint also sought to challenge the constitutionality of the IIRIRA.

Judge Karlton again granted a TRO, and entered a preliminary injunction, prohibiting the deportation of the class of noncitizens qualified to challenge advance parole policy. Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Meese, 1998 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 10429 (E.D. Cal. 1998). Defendants appealed and the Ninth Circuit (Judge O'Scannlain) reversed. Catholic Soc. Servs., Inc. v. I.N.S., 182 F.3d 1053 (9th Cir. 1999). On rehearing en banc, the Court of Appeals (Judge William A. Fletcher) affirmed in part, reversed in part and remanded. 232 F.3d 1139 (9th Cir. 2000).

In Dec. 2000 Congress enacted the Legal Immigration Family Equity (LIFE) Act. The LIFE Act repealed the challenged section (§ 377) of IIRIRA. Based on the enactment of LIFE, in August 2001, the District Court (Judge Karlton) reinstated the previously dismissed case (CSS I, docket #86-1343) and consolidated it with the second filed case (CSS II, #98-629).

On Feb. 15, 2002, the District Court (Judge Karlton) amended the class certification to include the class members from CSS I as well as the members "who were not part of the original class, but who were subject to the same statutes requiring that aliens seeking legalization under IRCA must have presented complete application form to legalization officer in order for court to have jurisdiction over cause of action by alien, for limited purpose of challenging the jurisdiction-stripping provisions on Equal Protection grounds." Catholic Soc. Servs. v. Ashcroft, 206 F.R.D. 654 (E.D. Cal. 2002).

Settlement discussions soon followed and an agreement was reached in late 2003. On Jan. 23, 2004, Judge Karlton approved the settlement, which allowed class members to apply for permanent resident status under the amnesty program beginning about Mar. 2004. 2004 WL 5716141 (E.D. Cal. 2004). For the full settlement terms, see the Joint Stipulation Regarding Settlement, which is part of the document collection for this case.

On Mar. 5, 2004, Judge Karlton ordered defendants to pay plaintiffs $3.5 million as full settlement of all claims for attorneys' fees and $100,000 for costs.

On May 15, 2007, Judge Karlton dismissed with prejudice all claims from the complaint as amended, and dissolved any injunctive orders and decisions.

Developments on the docket since 2007 reflect disputes between the parties as to administrative procedures for applications deemed to have been abandoned or by foreign filers; and as to calculation of attorneys' fees.

The docket has no further updates since Aug. 2014. This case is closed.

Erica Woodruff - 08/21/2007
Ava Morgenstern - 12/02/2017

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Admission - criteria
Admission - procedure
Constitutional rights
Deportation - criteria
Temporary protected status
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA)
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA)
Defendant(s) Attorney General of the United States
Immigration and Naturalization Service
Plaintiff Description All noncitizens whose applications for legalization through the amnesty program of the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 were denied because of the INS’ advance parole rule.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations California Rural Legal Assistance
Center for Human Rights & Constitutional Law
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Filed Pro Se Unknown
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Attorneys fees
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Filing Year 1986
Case Closing Year 2007
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing IM-CA-0019 : LULAC v. INS (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0008 : Zambrano v. INS (E.D. Cal.)
Additional Resources
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  The Oyez Project, Reno, Attorney General v. Catholic Social Services, Inc., 509 U.S. 43 (1993).
Date: Jun. 18, 1993
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

2:86-cv-01343-LKK-JFM (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/15/2007
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
2:98-cv-00629-LKK-JFM (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-9001.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/29/2014
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Opinion (1987 WL 61013)
IM-CA-0011-0025.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 04/03/1987
Opinion (1987 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 3988) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0028.pdf | LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/04/1987
Source: LexisNexis
Opinion (820 F.2d 289)
IM-CA-0011-0024.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/15/1987
Opinion (664 F.Supp. 1378) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0016.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/17/1987
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (685 F.Supp. 1149) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0017.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/03/1988
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (956 F.2d 914)
IM-CA-0011-0018.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/13/1992
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (505 U.S. 1203)
IM-CA-0011-0026.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/22/1992
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (509 U.S. 43)
IM-CA-0011-0027.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/18/1993
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (996 F.2d 221)
IM-CA-0011-0019.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/07/1993
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (134 F.3d 921)
IM-CA-0011-0020.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 01/16/1998
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (1998 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 10431) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0029.pdf | LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/05/1998
Source: LexisNexis
Opinion (1998 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 10430) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0030.pdf | LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/12/1998
Source: LexisNexis
Opinion (1998 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 10429) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0031.pdf | LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/19/1998
Source: LexisNexis
Opinion (182 F.3d 1053)
IM-CA-0011-0021.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/30/1999
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (197 F.3d 1041)
IM-CA-0011-0023.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 12/15/1999
Opinion (232 F.3d 1139)
IM-CA-0011-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/21/2000
Source: Google Scholar
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/27/2001
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/26/2001
Stipulated Voluntary Dismissal of Plaintiff Gustavo Rodriguez and [Proposed] Order Thereon
IM-CA-0011-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/14/2002
Order (206 F.R.D. 654) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0004.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/15/2002
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/05/2002
Stipulated Voluntary Dismissal of Plaintiff Maria Magana and [Proposed] Order Thereon
IM-CA-0011-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/05/2002
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2002
Order (268 F.Supp.2d 1172) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/24/2002
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/12/2002
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/03/2002
Order (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/23/2002
Joint Stipulation Regarding Settlement
IM-CA-0011-0014.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/01/2003
Order Approving Settlement of Class Action and Joint Stipulation Regarding Settlement (2004 WL 5716141) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0012.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 01/23/2004
Joint Stipulation of Settlement re: Attorney's Fees and Costs; Order Thereon [ECF# 659]
IM-CA-0011-0035.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/05/2004
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Stipulation Dismissing Action Pursuant to Paragraph 17 of Settlement; [Proposed] Order Thereon
IM-CA-0011-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/15/2007
Order [ECF# 667] (2008 WL 4899534) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0032.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 11/12/2008
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 678] (2009 WL 4928377) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0033.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 12/11/2009
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 696] (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0034.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/18/2010
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Judges Alarcon, Arthur Lawrence (Ninth Circuit)
IM-CA-0011-0020 | IM-CA-0011-0021 | IM-CA-0011-0024 | IM-CA-0011-0025
Anderson, J. Blaine (D. Idaho, Ninth Circuit)
IM-CA-0011-0024 | IM-CA-0011-0025
Blackmun, Harry Andrew (SCOTUS, Eighth Circuit)
Browning, James Robert (Ninth Circuit)
Fernandez, Ferdinand Francis (C.D. Cal., Ninth Circuit)
Fletcher, William A. (Ninth Circuit)
Goodwin, Alfred Theodore (Ninth Circuit, D. Or.)
IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0019
Graber, Susan (Ninth Circuit)
Hall, Cynthia Holcomb (Ninth Circuit, C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0024 | IM-CA-0011-0025
Hawkins, Michael Daly (Ninth Circuit)
Hug, Procter Ralph Jr. (Ninth Circuit)
IM-CA-0011-0015 | IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0019 | IM-CA-0011-0023
Karlton, Lawrence K. (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0001 | IM-CA-0011-0003 | IM-CA-0011-0004 | IM-CA-0011-0006 | IM-CA-0011-0007 | IM-CA-0011-0008 | IM-CA-0011-0009 | IM-CA-0011-0010 | IM-CA-0011-0011 | IM-CA-0011-0012 | IM-CA-0011-0013 | IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028 | IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-0032 | IM-CA-0011-0033 | IM-CA-0011-0034 | IM-CA-0011-0035 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (SCOTUS, Ninth Circuit)
Kozinski, Alex (Ninth Circuit)
Moulds, John F. (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0011-0005 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Nelson, Thomas G. (Ninth Circuit)
O'Connor, Sandra Day (SCOTUS)
O'Scannlain, Diarmuid Fionntain (Ninth Circuit)
IM-CA-0011-0020 | IM-CA-0011-0021
Rehnquist, William Hubbs (SCOTUS)
Reinhardt, Stephen Roy (Ninth Circuit)
Scalia, Antonin (SCOTUS, D.C. Circuit)
Schroeder, Mary Murphy (Ninth Circuit)
IM-CA-0011-0020 | IM-CA-0011-0021
Sneed, Joseph Tyree III (Ninth Circuit)
IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0019
Souter, David Hackett (SCOTUS, First Circuit)
Stevens, John Paul (SCOTUS, Seventh Circuit)
Thomas, Sidney Runyan (Ninth Circuit)
Thomas, Clarence (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS)
Trott, Stephen S. (Ninth Circuit)
White, Byron Raymond (SCOTUS)
Plaintiff's Lawyers Abascal, Ralph Santiago (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0024 | IM-CA-0011-0025 | IM-CA-0011-0027 | IM-CA-0011-0028 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Bau, Ignatius (California)
IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Broderick, Patrick (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Cespedes, Luis Alfonso (California)
IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Cordova, Ricardo (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Finley, Beth A. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Gibbs, Robert H. (Washington)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Hayward, Miriam (California)
IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Holguín, Carlos R. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-0015 | IM-CA-0011-0021 | IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-0035 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Lopez, Edward (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Mann, Ronald J. (District of Columbia)
Padilla, Jose (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Pasahow, Lynn H. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Pauw, Robert (Washington)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Rosenbaum, Stephen A. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0028 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Rubin, Robert J. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Rubin, Michael (California)
IM-CA-0011-0015 | IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0028 | IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Sandoval, Elizabeth (California)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Schey, Peter A. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-0015 | IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0018 | IM-CA-0011-0020 | IM-CA-0011-0021 | IM-CA-0011-0024 | IM-CA-0011-0025 | IM-CA-0011-0028 | IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-0035 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Defendant's Lawyers Adams, Linda B. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0028
Bell, Keisha Dawn (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0015 | IM-CA-0011-0021 | IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Bernal, David V. (District of Columbia)
Bombaugh, Robert L. (District of Columbia)
Carty, Eileen A. (District of Columbia)
Filppu, Lauri Steven (District of Columbia)
Funk, Stephen W. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0020 | IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Kamlet, Susan L. (District of Columbia)
Keener, Donald E. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0029 | IM-CA-0011-0030 | IM-CA-0011-0031 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Kendall, Robert Jr. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Kline, David J. (District of Columbia)
Levi, David F. (California)
MacLachlan, Andrew C. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
McCallum, Robert D. Jr. (District of Columbia)
McIntosh, Scott R. (District of Columbia)
Norwood, Anthony W. (District of Columbia)
Raymond, Robert R. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-0035
Scott, McGregor W. (California)
Stern, Mark B. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0024 | IM-CA-0011-0025
Williams, Glyndell E. (California)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-0016 | IM-CA-0011-0017 | IM-CA-0011-0028 | IM-CA-0011-9000
Wilson, Earle B. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0014 | IM-CA-0011-0035 | IM-CA-0011-9000 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Wright, M. Jocelyn (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0011-0015 | IM-CA-0011-0021 | IM-CA-0011-9001
Other Lawyers Chemerinsky, Erwin (California)
Jobe, Robert B. (California)
Van Der Hout, Marc (California)

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