University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
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Case Name U.S. v. Michigan PC-MI-0007
Docket / Court G84-63 ( W.D. Mich. )
State/Territory Michigan
Case Type(s) Prison Conditions
Attorney Organization ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Case Summary
On January 18, 1984, the U.S. Attorney's Office and the Department of Justice filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Michigan against the Michigan Department of Corrections and other state officials under 42 U.S.C. §1983 and the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons ... read more >
On January 18, 1984, the U.S. Attorney's Office and the Department of Justice filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Michigan against the Michigan Department of Corrections and other state officials under 42 U.S.C. §1983 and the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA), 42 U.S.C. §1997, alleging unconstitutional prison conditions. The United States sought injunctive relief to remedy the alleged Eighth Amendment violations.

Shortly after the lawsuit was filed, the parties entered into a consent decree, which included a compliance plan dealing with conditions of confinement such as medical and mental health care, fire safety, sanitation, hygiene, crowding and protection from harm. The District Court (Judge Richard Alan Enslen) appointed Special Master F. Warren Benton to oversee implementation of the plan on October 2, 1985. The District Court continued to issue various orders to ensure implementation of the consent decree, and on August 28, 1987, Judge Enslen granted the National Prison Project of the American Civil Liberties Union amicus status. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 116 F.R.D. 655 (W.D.Mich. 1987). On March 3, 1988, Judge Enslen held that a policy permitting use of food loaf as punishment even when the misconduct charge upon which that punishment was based had been dismissed violated due process rights. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 680 F.Supp. 270 (W.D.Mich. 1988). A helpful compilation of the opinions and orders issued in the case through July 1987 was published in U.S. v. State of Michigan, 680 F.Supp. 928 (W.D.Mich. 1988).

On July 2, 1991, after state defendants appealed orders issued by Judge Enslen to implement the consent decree, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (Judge Robert B. Krupansky) held that the District Court had abused its discretion. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 940 F.2d 143 (6th Cir. 1991). The Court of Appeals found that Judge Enslen had overly intruded upon Michigan's sovereignty. The Court of Appeals ordered Judge Enslen to not impose upon the state overly intrusive remedies for prison conditions but instead to exercise restraint and reason in performing the District Court's oversight responsibility.

The state defendants appealed a subsequent order by Judge Enslen denying the defendants' motion to dismiss portions of the consent decree. On March 4, 1994, the Court of Appeals (Judge James L. Ryan) upheld Judge Enslen's decision to dismiss only those portions of the consent decree where compliance had been achieved. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 18 F.3d 348 (6th Cir. 1994), cert. denied 513 U.S. 925 (1994). On August 7, 1995, the Court of Appeals (Judge Herbert Theodore Milburn) upheld various orders issued by Judge Enslen regarding the provision of mental health beds but held that the District Court lacked jurisdiction to modify its orders of September 1994 while those orders were on appeal. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 62 F.3d 1418 (6th Cir. 1995) (unpublished disposition).

Following passage of the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA), 18 U.S.C. §3626, the state defendants moved for immediate termination of the consent decree because no findings of liability were made in the case, as it was initially resolved by a consent decree. The state defendants also invoked the PLRA's automatic stay provision, to stay prospective relief. On July 3, 1996, the Court of Appeals ordered that the motion for immediate termination be denied, ruling that the termination motion was more properly addressed to the District Court. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 91 F.3d 145 (6th Cir. 1996) (unpublished table disposition). On the same date as the Court of Appeals decision, July 3, 1996, the District Court (Chief Judge Enslen) ordered that the District Court was incapable of reaching a decision on the motion to terminate before the automatic stay provision would take effect and further held that the automatic stay provision was unconstitutional. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 989 F.Supp. 853 (W.D.Mich. 1996). Thus, Chief Judge Enslen utilized a different PLRA provision, 18 U.S.C. §3626(b)(3), to hold that the automatic stay provision was not to take effect until further evidentiary hearings were conducted regarding the state defendants' motion to terminate.

On September 12, 1996, Chief Judge Enslen granted the plaintiff's discovery motion to conduct further fact-finding and stated that recent hearings revealed ongoing constitutional violations regarding the mental health care of inmates. The state defendants appealed this ruling, and on January 14, 1998, the Court of Appeals dismissed the appeal for lack of jurisdiction because the District Court's discovery order was not a final order nor was it property appealable as an interlocutory order. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 134 F.3d 745 (6th Cir. 1998) (per curiam). The Court of Appeals (Judge Karen Nelson Moore) then held in a related case on May 20, 1998, that the automatic stay provision of the PLRA was constitutional when construed to permit the District to retain its equitable power to suspend the stay in accordance with general equitable principles. Hadix v. Johnson, 144 F.3d 925 (6th Cir. 1998) (PC-MI-0003).

On February 3, 1999, Chief Judge Enslen granted the parties' joint motion to terminate the consent decree pursuant to the PLRA. The case is closed.

Tom Madison - 10/18/2006

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Constitutional Clause
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Crowding / caseload
Bathing and hygiene
Fire safety
Food service / nutrition / hydration
Personal injury
Sanitation / living conditions
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Totality of conditions
Medical/Mental Health
Medical care, general
Mental health care, general
Plaintiff Type
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Type of Facility
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA), 42 U.S.C. § 1997 et seq.
Defendant(s) Charles Egeler Facility
Marquette Branch Prison
Michigan Reformatory
Parnall Correctional Facility
State Prison of Southern Michigan
Plaintiff Description United States Department of Justice
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1984 - 1999
Filing Year 1984
Case Closing Year 1999
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing PC-MI-0003 : Hadix v. Johnson (E.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0018 : Hadix v. Johnson (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0019 : Hadix v. Caruso (W.D. Mich.)
Additional Resources
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  An Analysis of CRIPA Findings Letters Issued to Jails for Constitutional Violations by the Department of Justice
Date: Apr. 15, 2016
By: Jeff Mellow, Bryce E. Peterson & Mijin Kim (John Jay College of Criminal Justice Faculty)
Citation: Am. J. Crim. Just. (April 2016)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Civil Rights Injunctions Over Time: A Case Study of Jail and Prison Court Orders
N.Y.U. Law Review
Date: May 2006
By: Margo Schlanger (Washington University Faculty)
Citation: 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 550 (2006)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Judicial Policy Making and the Modern State: How the Courts Reformed America's Prisons
Date: Jan. 1, 1998
By: Malcolm M. Feeley & Edward Rubin (UC Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law & Vanderbilt School of Law Faculty Faculty)
Citation: (1998)
[ Detail ]

84-00063 (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/24/2003
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
PC-MI-0007-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/15/1983
Consent Decree (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/28/1984
Brief in Support of Appointment of Special Master
PC-MI-0007-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/05/1985
Response to Defendants Request for Modification of the State Plan
PC-MI-0007-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/10/1986
Compilation of Opinions and Orders (680 F.Supp. 928) (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0020.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/27/1987
Source: Westlaw
Opinion (116 F.R.D. 655) (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0019.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/28/1987
Source: Google Scholar
Opinion (680 F.Supp. 270) (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 03/03/1988
Source: Google Scholar
Order (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/24/1989
Order (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/06/1989
Unpublished Opinion (899 F.2d 15)
PC-MI-0007-0024.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 04/04/1990
Source: Westlaw
Order (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/01/1990
Notice of Appeal
PC-MI-0007-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/31/1990
Opinion (940 F.2d 143)
PC-MI-0007-0016.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/02/1991
Source: Google Scholar
Stipulation of Dismissal as to All Issues Except for Mental Health
PC-MI-0007-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/29/1992
Joint Motion of the United States and the State of Michigan to Dismiss Portions of the Consent Decree
PC-MI-0007-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/29/1992
Opinon (18 F.3d 348)
PC-MI-0007-0017.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 04/04/1994
Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum Decision (513 U.S. 925)
PC-MI-0007-0023.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/11/1994
Source: Westlaw
Unpublished Opinion (62 F.3d 1418)
PC-MI-0007-0021.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/07/1995
Order (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/03/1996
Order (91 F.3d 145)
PC-MI-0007-0022.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/03/1996
Opinion (134 F.3d 745)
PC-MI-0007-0018.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 01/14/1998
Source: Google Scholar
Press Release
PC-MI-0007-0014.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/04/1999
Judges Beckwith, Sandra Shank (S.D. Ohio)
Boggs, Danny Julian (Sixth Circuit)
Celebrezze, Anthony Joseph (Sixth Circuit)
Daughtrey, Martha Craig (Sixth Circuit)
Enslen, Richard Alan (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0003 | PC-MI-0007-0004 | PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0007 | PC-MI-0007-0008 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0011 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-0022 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Guy, Ralph B. Jr. (FISCR, E.D. Mich., Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0018 | PC-MI-0007-0022
Johnstone, Edward Huggins (W.D. Ky.)
Keith, Damon Jerome (E.D. Mich., Sixth Circuit)
Krupansky, Robert B. (N.D. Ohio, Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0024
Milburn, Herbert Theodore (E.D. Tenn, Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0021 | PC-MI-0007-0024
Nelson, David Aldrich (Sixth Circuit)
Norris, Alan Eugene (Sixth Circuit)
Ryan, James Leo (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0022
Suhrheinrich, Richard Fred (E.D. Mich., Sixth Circuit)
Thomas, William Kernahan (N.D. Ohio)
Plaintiff's Lawyers Alexander, Elizabeth R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0003 | PC-MI-0007-0004 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Barnhart, Michael J. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Bennett, Larry W. (Michigan)
Campanelli, Richard (District of Columbia)
Carle, Susan D. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017
Curry, John J. jr. (District of Columbia)
Dunne, John R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0016
Fette, William L. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0003 | PC-MI-0007-0004 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Flynn, David K. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0018
Gilman, Leonard R. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002
Guzman, Philip A. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Joyce, Patrick M. (District of Columbia)
Lawrence, Paul S. (District of Columbia)
McElderry, Marie K. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0018
Nelson, Mellie H. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Payne, Timothy R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Peabody, Arthur E. Jr. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017
Reynolds, William Bradford (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Russell, Joann M. (District of Columbia)
Smietanka, John A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Smith, William French (District of Columbia)
Stark, Lisa J. (District of Columbia)
Streeter, Patricia A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Weinstein, Laurie J. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0018 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Adams, Richard M.C. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0016
Barrick, Andrew J. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Cahill, John M. (California)
Friedman, Leo H. (Michigan)
Granholm, Jennifer M. (Michigan)
Kelley, Frank J. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0008 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020
MacKenzie, Brian W. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020
McGehee, Donald S. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Moquin, Michael J. (Michigan)
Nelson, Thomas C. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Nickerson, Michael A. (Michigan)
Przeko-Shaw, Susan (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0018
Przekop-Shaw, Susan (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0008 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0018 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Quinn, Andrew D. (Michigan)
Schmidt, Barbara A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Steinborn, Stanley D. (Michigan)
Van Cleve, Janet A. (Michigan)
Ward, Lisa C. (Michigan)
Other Lawyers Aiyetoro, Adjoa A. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Benton, F. Warren (New York)
PC-MI-0007-9000 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Blake, Patricia L. (Michigan)
Dettmer, Michael Hayes (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Gershal, Alan M. (Michigan)
Gowing, Delmer C. III (Florida)
Miaskoff, Carol R. (District of Columbia)
Pawlowski, George E. (Michigan)
Rosenbaum, Steven H. (District of Columbia)
Taifa-Caldwell, Nkechi (District of Columbia)

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