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Case Name Campbell v. McGruder JC-DC-0001
Docket / Court 1462-71 ( D.D.C. )
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) Jail Conditions
Special Collection Court-ordered receiverships
Attorney Organization ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Case Summary
On July 21, 1971, pre-trial detainees at the District of Columbia Jail filed a class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia against the mayor of the District of Columbia and jail officials. The complaint sought declaratory and injunctive relief for a long ... read more >
On July 21, 1971, pre-trial detainees at the District of Columbia Jail filed a class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia against the mayor of the District of Columbia and jail officials. The complaint sought declaratory and injunctive relief for a long list of violations of the inmates' Fifth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendment Constitutional rights. These included overcrowding, inadequate food, denial of access to counsel, inadequate medical services, lack of contact with community, and lack of programs to allow inmates to maintain employment prior to trial. Plaintiffs were represented by attorneys of the Public Defender Service of the District of Columbia. In later proceedings, the plaintiffs were represented by the D.C. Prisoners' Legal Services Project, Inc.

In 1975 and 1976, the district court entered several orders enjoining conditions of confinement in the jail On March 21, 1975, the court (Judge William B. Bryant) ordered the jail to reduce overcrowding and implement procedures concerning the release of inmates prior to trial. On November 5, 1975, the Judge Bryant ordered the jail to direct local authorities to inspect the jail for health and safety violation, to provide clean clothing and linens, to provide pre-trial detainees with daily outdoor recreation and monthly medical exams, and to implement a new restraint policy. Campbell v. McGruder, 416 F. Supp. 100 (D.D.C. 1975). Judge Bryant entered another order addressing overcrowding on May 24, 1976. Campbell v. McGruder, 416 F. Supp. 111 (D.D.C. 1976). On March 30, 1978, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit affirmed (Judge David L. Bazelon) these orders with respect to the issue of overcrowding and remanded the other orders for clarification. Campbell v. McGruder, 188 U.S. App. D.C. 258 (D.C. Cir. 1978). On remand, the court vacated the part of the previous orders that prohibited the practice of double celling and provided additional security and limits on when this practice occurred. Campbell v. McGruder, 554 F. Supp. 562 (D.D.C. 1982).

On July 13, 1985, the district court prohibited the jail from accepting any inmates until the population of the facility was reduced. In August 22, 1985, the parties reached a Stipulation to Reduce the Population of the DC Jail providing detailed guidelines for population reduction. On March 11, 1987, the court found the District of Columbia in contempt for failure to follow the order and stipulation.

In 1990, Judge Bryant ordered the jail to present a plan to improve health care conditions. On March 4, 1993, after the plaintiffs filed a motion for contempt, the district court ordered the defendants to immediately employ a psychologist and correctional officers trained in mental health care and develop chronic disease clinics within the jail. The defendants failed to comply with portions of this order and the district court (Judge Bryant) appointed a Special Officer. Based on the Special Officer's reports, the court found the defendants in contempt with regards to medical and mental health care. On March 16, 1994, the Special Officer presented a detailed plan to improve these conditions, which the district court ordered the defendants to implement. The court later appointed a Receiver to oversee the implementation of the plan. Over the following years, litigation continued regarding fees and contempt motions. Numerous progress reports were filed with the court.

On July 7, 2003, Judge Bryant granted a motion to dismiss the cases, terminating all injunctive relief pursuant to the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA). The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (per curium) affirmed this decision on March 9, 2004, finding that the plaintiffs failed to demonstrate a current constitutional violation as required by the PLRA. Campbell v. McGruder, 86 Fed. Appx. 426 (D.C. Cir. 2004).

Angela Heverling - 06/09/2007

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Constitutional Clause
Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Due Process
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Crowding / caseload
Access to lawyers or judicial system
Bathing and hygiene
Food service / nutrition / hydration
Recreation / Exercise
Restraints : chemical
Restraints : physical
Sanitation / living conditions
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Medical/Mental Health
Medical care, general
Mental health care, general
Type of Facility
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. ยง 1983
Defendant(s) District of Columbia
Plaintiff Description Pre-trial detainees at the District of Columbia Jail.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1975 - 2004
Filing Year 1971
Case Closing Year 2004
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing JC-DC-0002 : Inmates of D.C. Jail v. Jackson (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0010 : Battle v. D.C. (D.D.C.)
PC-DC-0010 : U.S. v. District of Columbia (D.D.C.)
1:71-CV-01462-WBB-WBB (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/09/2004
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Stipulations -- Second Set New Detention Facility
JC-DC-0001-0082.pdf | Detail
Complaint for Injunction, Declaratory Judgment and Other Appropriate Relief
JC-DC-0001-0085.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/01/1971
Complaint for Injunction, Declaratory Judgment and Other Appropriate Relief
JC-DC-0001-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/16/1971
Consent Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/10/1971
Amended Consent Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/11/1972
First Amended Complaint for Injunction, Declaratory Judgment and other Appropriate Relief
JC-DC-0001-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/02/1972
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/13/1972
JC-DC-0001-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/17/1974
Memorandum and Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/21/1975
JC-DC-0001-0083.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/20/1975
Stipulations Regarding D.C. Bar Jail Project
JC-DC-0001-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/21/1975
Memorandum and Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/05/1975
Memorandum and Order (416 F.Supp. 100) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0087.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/05/1975
Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum Opinion (416 F.Supp. 106) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0089.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/05/1975
Source: Google Scholar
Proceedings on Remand (416 F.Supp. 111) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0090.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/24/1976
Source: Google Scholar
JC-DC-0001-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/30/1978
Opinion (580 F.2d 521)
JC-DC-0001-0091.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 03/30/1978
Source: Google Scholar
Findings of Fact (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0022.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/09/1980
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0024.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/14/1981
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0026.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/08/1982
Order & Memorandum (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0084.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/15/1982
Memorandum and Order (554 F.Supp. 562) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0088.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/08/1982
Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum and Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0030.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/16/1982
Memorandum and Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0032.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/27/1983
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0035.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/30/1983
Memorandum Opinion (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0036.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/30/1983
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0037.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/28/1983
Consent Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0039.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/03/1984
Memorandum and Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0041.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/13/1985
Memorandum and Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0081.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/15/1985
Memorandum in Support of Joint Motion to Amend the Stipulation and order of August 22, 1985
JC-DC-0001-0045.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/22/1985
Stipulation of the Parties to Reduce the Population at the D.C. Jail (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0046.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/22/1985
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0050.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/09/1985
Joint Motion to Amend the Stipulation and order of August 22, 1985 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0047.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/01/1985
Order (1987 WL 8724) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0093.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 03/11/1987
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0054.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/26/1990
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0056.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/04/1993
Order Appointing Special Officer (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0058.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/20/1993
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0060.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/09/1993
Consent Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0062.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/16/1994
Notice of Filing
JC-DC-0001-0064.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/12/1994
Initial Remedial Plan for Mental Heath Care, Medical Care and Compliance Monitoring at the District of Columbia Jail
JC-DC-0001-0066.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/11/1994
Notice of Filing
JC-DC-0001-0068.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/16/1994
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0069.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/27/1995
Findings and Order Appointing Receiver (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0071.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/11/1995
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0073.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/03/1995
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0075.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/28/1995
Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0077.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/05/1995
Consent Order (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0079.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/19/1997
Beyond Community Standards and a Constitutional Level of Care? A Review of Services, Costs, and Staffing Levels at the Corrections Medical Receiver for the District of Columbia Jail
JC-DC-0001-0086.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/30/2000
Judgment (86 Fed.Appx. 426)
JC-DC-0001-0092.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 01/23/2004
Source: Google Scholar
Judges Bazelon, David L. (D.C. Circuit)
JC-DC-0001-0083 | JC-DC-0001-0091
Bryant, William Benson (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0003 | JC-DC-0001-0011 | JC-DC-0001-0018 | JC-DC-0001-0022 | JC-DC-0001-0024 | JC-DC-0001-0026 | JC-DC-0001-0030 | JC-DC-0001-0032 | JC-DC-0001-0035 | JC-DC-0001-0036 | JC-DC-0001-0037 | JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0041 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047 | JC-DC-0001-0050 | JC-DC-0001-0054 | JC-DC-0001-0056 | JC-DC-0001-0058 | JC-DC-0001-0060 | JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-0069 | JC-DC-0001-0071 | JC-DC-0001-0073 | JC-DC-0001-0075 | JC-DC-0001-0077 | JC-DC-0001-0079 | JC-DC-0001-0081 | JC-DC-0001-0084 | JC-DC-0001-0087 | JC-DC-0001-0088 | JC-DC-0001-0089 | JC-DC-0001-0090 | JC-DC-0001-0093 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Garland, Merrick B. (D.C. Circuit)
Henderson, Karen LeCraft (D.S.C., D.C. Circuit)
Williams, Stephen Fain (D.C. Circuit)
Monitors/Masters Lopes, Grace Michele (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0066 | JC-DC-0001-0068
Plaintiff's Lawyers Bronstein, Alvin J. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Dean, Benjamin M. (District of Columbia)
Diaz, Teresa (District of Columbia)
Duggan, James E. (District of Columbia)
Gannon , Jonathan Walter (District of Columbia)
Hickey, J. Patrick (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0013 | JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047 | JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-0082 | JC-DC-0001-0087 | JC-DC-0001-0088 | JC-DC-0001-0089 | JC-DC-0001-0090 | JC-DC-0001-0091 | JC-DC-0001-0092 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Hilleboe, Douglas (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Lotke, Eric Robert (Virginia)
McClymont, Mary E. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
More, John H. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Ney, Steven (Maryland)
JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Pittman, Shaw (District of Columbia)
Smith, Jonathan Mark (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Axelrod, Jon P. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Barton, Richard W. (District of Columbia)
Chernoff, Paul (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002 | JC-DC-0001-0003 | JC-DC-0001-0085
Flyer, David A. (District of Columbia)
Goldfard, Ronald L. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Lefstein, Norman (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Lerner, Jacques Phillip (District of Columbia)
Love, Richard Stuart (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-0064 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Miller, Nicholas Patrick (Maryland)
Neidrich, Thomas R. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0082 | JC-DC-0001-0087 | JC-DC-0001-0089 | JC-DC-0001-0090 | JC-DC-0001-0091
Nelson, Mollie (District of Columbia)
Payton, John A. (District of Columbia)
Reischel, Charles L. (District of Columbia)
Risher, John R. Jr. (District of Columbia)
Robbins, Louis P. (District of Columbia)
Schwab, Edward E. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0088 | JC-DC-0001-0092 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Suda, John H. (District of Columbia)
Sutton, David P. (District of Columbia)
Taylor, William W. III (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Utiger, Robert C. (District of Columbia)
Wilson, Mary L. (District of Columbia)
Zielinski, Michael Edward (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0064

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