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Case Name State of New York v. U.S. Department of Commerce PB-NY-0032
Docket / Court 1:18-cv-02921-JMF ( S.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Public Benefits / Government Services
Special Collection Civil Rights Challenges to Trump Immigration Enforcement Orders
Take Care
Case Summary
This was a legal challenge brought by an alliance of states, counties, and municipalities to the Trump administration’s proposed inclusion of a question about citizenship status on the 2020 U.S. Census. The plaintiffs filed this lawsuit on April 3, 2018 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern ... read more >
This was a legal challenge brought by an alliance of states, counties, and municipalities to the Trump administration’s proposed inclusion of a question about citizenship status on the 2020 U.S. Census. The plaintiffs filed this lawsuit on April 3, 2018 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York and sought declaratory and injunctive relief. The plaintiffs alleged that the federal government, by asking census participants about their citizenship status, would deter undocumented immigrants from participating in the census out of a fear of possible government reprisal, thus hurting the accuracy of census counts. According to the plaintiffs, this meant that the federal government was both shirking its duty under the Enumeration Clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Sec. 2, Cl. 3) to conduct an “actual enumeration” of the “whole number of persons” and violating the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). They added that if the census numbers were kept artificially low, a number of public benefits would be jeopardized, including federal funding for social services and infrastructure, numerically adequate representation in the House of Representatives, and public and private resources for immigrant communities.

The Department of Commerce (DOC) moved to dismiss the complaint on May 25, 2018. It primarily argued that: 1) the plaintiffs lacked standing to bring a lawsuit because their alleged injuries were too speculative and failed to allege that they were caused by the proposed citizenship question; 2) the decision over what questions to include in the census questionnaire was solely within the agency’s discretion; 3) the Enumeration Clause does not contain any restrictions on the form of the census questionnaire; and 4) even conceding the previous three arguments, the agency’s decision to include a citizenship question would not violate the APA, the Enumeration Clause, or any other law.

On June 6, 2018, an alliance of immigration advocacy non-profits filed a separate lawsuit in the same court (District Judge Jesse M. Furman), making the same legal claims as the plaintiffs, save for adding a Fifth Amendment equal protection claim. That case is in the Clearinghouse, here. On June 13, 2018, after the parties conferred on a possible consolidation of the two cases, Judge Furman ordered them coordinated and consolidated for the purposes of case management and discovery, while deferring the question of formal consolidation.

On June 26, 2018, pursuant to an order from Judge Furman, the parties filed an opposing letter brief on whether and to what extent discovery outside of the administrative record would be permitted. The plaintiffs argued that their allegations of bad-faith decisionmaking and the need to explain complex a subject matter made extra-record discovery appropriate. The Department of Commerce, for its part, rebutted by asserting that discovery would be inappropriate in an action challenging an agency decision. After hearing oral arguments on this issue on July 3, Judge Furman sided with the plaintiffs.

In an opinion issued on July 26, 2018 addressing both this case and the other case brought by the NGO plaintiffs, Judge Furman allowed the plaintiffs’ APA claims and the NGO plaintiffs’ equal protection claims to proceed, while dismissing the Enumeration Clause claim. He rejected in full the government’s arguments that the court lacked jurisdiction; he explained that although the DOC was entitled to deference as to which questions to include on the census, that did not mean that the DOC’s decisions were totally insulated from judicial review. Addressing the NGO plaintiffs’ equal protection claim, he found that they had plausibly alleged that the DOC’s decision to include a citizenship question was motivated, at least in part, by discriminatory animus and would lead to discriminatory effects. At the same time, he rejected the plaintiffs' Enumeration Clause claim, concluding that the citizenship question was a permissible (although not mandated) exercise of Congress’s—and, by extension, the DOC’s—broad power under the Clause.

On September 14, 2018, the court ordered formal consolidation of this case with The New York Immigration Coalition v. United States Department of Commerce, the case noted above. A week later, on September 21, 2018, the court granted plaintiff’s request to depose Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross. 333 F.Supp.3d 282. The court reasoned that because the Secretary’s intent and credibility were directly at issue, the public interest weighed heavily in favor of deposition of a high-ranking government official.

There then ensued protracted disputes over discovery; repeated requests by the government for a stay of the proceedings, discovery, and depositions; and multiple filings in the Second Circuit and the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus. All of these requests were denied. However, the Supreme Court stayed the testimony of Secretary Ross until it could decide on the government’s petition for a writ of mandamus. 202 L.Ed.2d 306. The effect of this was that Secretary Ross was not deposed before the district court held a bench trial.

The district court held a bench trial from November 5 through November 9, 2018, and then held oral arguments on November 26. Judge Furman issued a statement of findings of fact and law, and an order dated January 15, 2019. 351 F.Supp.3d 502. The court found for the defendants on the constitutional claims and for the plaintiffs on their APA claim. The court held that the Secretary Secretary Ross had violated the APA by ignoring the procedures set forth for adding questions to the Census (notifying Congress), acting irrationally in light of the evidence before him indicating problems with his proposed question, and providing a bad-faith or pretextual rationale for the proposed question. The judge held that the stated rationale for adding a citizenship question to the Census—enforcing the Voting Rights Act—was designed to conceal his true purpose. However, Judge Furman found no constitutional violation because the plaintiffs did not sufficiently show that Secretary Ross's actions were motivated by a discriminatory purpose. The court therefore vacated the decision of the Secretary of Commerce to add a question concerning citizenship status to the 2020 decennial census questionnaire.

The Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Census were permanently enjoined from adding a citizenship question to the 2020 decennial census questionnaire unless: 1) the Secretary of Commerce had exhausted other options for gathering citizenship data; and 2) the Secretary of Commerce had first adequately explained his reasoning to Congress.

On January 27, 2019, the defendants appealed to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court granted review of the case on February 15, 2019—before judgment by the Second Circuit—and set arguments for April 2019. 2019 WL 331100.

The case is ongoing.

Alexander Walling - 08/03/2018
Elizabeth Johnson - 03/12/2019


compress summary

- click to show/hide ALL -
Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Content of Injunction
Discrimination Prohibition
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
Immigration status
General
Confidentiality
Disparate Impact
Funding
Government Services (specify)
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Record-keeping
Immigration/Border
Status/Classification
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
Plaintiff Type
City/County Plaintiff
State Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Ex parte Young (federal or state officials)
Defendant(s) Department of Commerce
Plaintiff Description An alliance of U.S. states, counties, and municipalities.
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted Moot
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Filing Year 2018
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing PB-NY-0033 : New York Immigration Coalition v. U.S. Department of Commerce (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-CA-0049 : California v. Ross (N.D. Cal.)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  Calendar of Upcoming Deadlines and Hearings for Census 2020 Cases
Date: Mar. 29, 2019
(Brennan Center for Justice)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Implementation of Executive Order 13768, "Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
The Washington Post
Date: May 22, 2017
By: Jefferson Sessions (U.S. Department of Justice)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Implementing the President's Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements Policies (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Enforcement of the Immigration Laws to Serve the National Interest (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Executive Order 13767: Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 27, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
Citation: 82 Fed. Reg. Presidential Documents 8793 (Jan. 27, 2017)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ]

  Executive Order 13768: Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 25, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:18-cv-02921 (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/22/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint [ECF# 10]
PB-NY-0032-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/04/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Complaint [ECF# 1]
PB-NY-0032-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/06/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Second Amended Complaint [ECF# 214]
PB-NY-0032-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/25/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order [ECF# 215] (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/26/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 312]
PB-NY-0032-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/10/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order [ECF# 344] (333 F.Supp.3d 282) (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 09/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 351]
PB-NY-0032-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/25/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Order and Opinion [ECF# 362] (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/30/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 373]
PB-NY-0032-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/09/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
US Supreme Court Opinion [ECF# 392] (139 S.Ct. 16)
PB-NY-0032-0009.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 10/23/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 544] (2018 WL 6060304) (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-0013.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 11/20/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law Regarding Census Questionaire [ECF# 574] (351 F.Supp.3d 502) (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-0010.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 01/15/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Final Judgment, Order of Vacatur, And Permanent Injunction [ECF# 575] (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-NY-0032-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/15/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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