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Case Name U.S. v. State of California IM-CA-0116
Docket / Court 2:18-cv-00490 ( E.D. Cal. )
State/Territory California
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Special Collection Take Care
Case Summary
The United States federal government filed this suit on March 6, 2018 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California, challenging California's "sanctuary city" state laws. This lawsuit comes after a series of lawsuits filed by California jurisdictions challenging the federal ... read more >
The United States federal government filed this suit on March 6, 2018 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California, challenging California's "sanctuary city" state laws. This lawsuit comes after a series of lawsuits filed by California jurisdictions challenging the federal government's sanctuary city policies, which deny federal funding to jurisdictions that impede the federal government's immigration policies. For more information on those cases, see the the Clearinghouse Special Collection page.

This suit challenged three California laws in particular: (1) the Immigrant Worker Protection Act ("AB 450") that prohibits private employers from voluntarily cooperating with federal officials without a judicial warrant or subpoena for purposes of immigration enforcement, (2) Assembly Bill 103 ("AB 103") that requires the state attorney general to investigate federal immigration detention facilities and processes, and (3) Senate Bill 54 ("SB 54") that limits local law enforcement from providing information about or transferring individuals subject to federal immigration custody to federal enforcement. The U.S. argued that the three laws "reflect a deliberate effort by California to obstruct the United States’ enforcement of federal immigration law," that the federal law preempted the state laws, and that the federal government had "preeminent authority" regarding immigration. The U.S. argued that California therefore violated the Supremacy Clause and that the Supremacy Clause rendered the state laws invalid. The U.S. sought declaratory and injunctive relief.

The same day, the U.S. moved for preliminary injunction. It sought to enjoin the implementation of these provisions within the three California laws. Meanwhile, a series of entities filed amici briefs and California moved to dismiss the case on May 4, 2018. A hearing on both motions was held on June 28.

On July 5, 2018, Judge Mendez granted in part and denied in part the motion for preliminary injunction, holding that "AB 103, SB 54, and the employee notice provision of AB 450 are permissible exercises of California’s sovereign power," but that the other provisions of AB 450 "impermissibly infringed on the sovereignty of the United States." As to AB 103, the court found that there was no indication "Congress intended for States to have no oversight over detention facilities operating within their borders," that AB 103 did not otherwise conflict with federal law, and that its burden on detention facilities is minimal since it did not impose any substantive requirements upon detention facilities but rather merely requires the detention facility to allow for access to review it. The court upheld AB 450's requirement that employers provide notice to their employees of any upcoming I-9 inspection but struck down under the supremacy clause the provisions prohibiting employers from verifying employment eligibility when federal law did not so require and from consenting to let immigration enforcement agents enter nonpublic labor areas to access, review, or obtain employee records. Finally, the court held that SB 54 did not conflict with federal law requiring information sharing, that the federal law was further potentially unconstitutional, and that California merely refusing to help federal law enforcement was different from impermissibly impeding federal law enforcement. 314 F.Supp.3d 1077.

On July 9, 2018, Judge Mendez granted in part and denied in part the motion to dismiss for the reasons stated above. The court dismissed the government's supremacy clause claim against AB 103, its claim against AB 450's notice provision, and its supremacy clause claim against SB 54. The court maintained the government's claims against AB 450's consent, access, and reverification provisions. 2018 WL 3361055. The U.S. immediately appealed the two decisions to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

The Ninth Circuit issued its decision on April 18, 2019. 921 F.3d 865. The court affirmed in part and reversed in part the district court's denial in large part of the government's motion for a preliminary injunction. First, the court affirmed the denial of a preliminary injunction with respect to AB 450, agreeing with Judge Mendez that it neither burdens the federal government nor conflicts with federal activities. Next, the court affirmed the denial of a preliminary injunction with respect to those provisions of AB 103 that simply duplicate inspection requirements mandated by California law. However, the court concluded that one subsection of AB 103, which requires examination of the circumstances surrounding the apprehension and transfer of immigration detainees, "discriminates against and impermissibly burdens the federal government, and so is unlawful under the doctrine of intergovernmental immunity." With respect to SB 54, the court affirmed the denial of a preliminary injunction, agreeing with Judge Mendez that any obstruction caused by the law is consistent with the State's prerogatives under the 10th Amendment and anti-commandeering rule. It also found that SB 54's information-sharing restrictions did not conflict with federal law.

The court then remanded for reconsideration of the equitable factors relevant to the question of whether to issue a preliminary injunction as applied to AB 103.

The case is ongoing.

Virginia Weeks - 03/09/2018
Virginia Weeks - 08/21/2018
Sichun Liu - 03/08/2019
Sam Kulhanek - 04/20/2019


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Supremacy Clause
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief denied
Preliminary relief granted
Discrimination-basis
Immigration status
General
Placement in detention facilities
Records Disclosure
Immigration/Border
Detention - conditions
Detention - criteria
Detention - procedures
Employment
ICE/DHS/INS raid
Sanctuary city/state
Plaintiff Type
State Plaintiff
Causes of Action Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Defendant(s) State of California
Plaintiff Description United States federal government
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Mixed
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Source of Relief Litigation
Filing Year 2018
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
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Docket(s)
2:18-cv-490 (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0116-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/19/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint [ECF# 1]
IM-CA-0116-0001.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 03/06/2018
Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction and Memorandum of Law in Support [ECF# 2-1]
IM-CA-0116-0002.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 03/06/2018
Amicus Curiae Brief of the American Center for Law and Justice in Support of Plaintiff’s Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 43]
IM-CA-0116-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/30/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 44]
IM-CA-0116-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/30/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief Amici Curiae of the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation and Michael Rushford Supporting Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 48]
IM-CA-0116-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/06/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amici Curiae Brief of National Sheriffs' Association and Victims' Organizations in Support of Plaintiff [ECF# 55]
IM-CA-0116-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amici Curiae Brief of Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association and National Border Patrol Council in Support of Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 56]
IM-CA-0116-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Municipalities & Elected Officials' Amici Curiae Brief [ECF# 57]
IM-CA-0116-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae NHelp et al. in Support of Defendant's Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 104]
IM-CA-0116-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/18/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amicus Curiae City and County of San Francisco in Support of Defendant's Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 112]
IM-CA-0116-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/18/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae Immigrant Legal Resource Center, Human Rights Watch, and Freedom for Immigrants in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 126]
IM-CA-0116-0015.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae Current and Former Prosecutors and Law Enforcement Leaders in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 127]
IM-CA-0116-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amicus Curiae Brief of the City of Los Angeles in Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 128]
IM-CA-0116-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Proposed] Brief of Amici Curiae 25 California Counties, Cities, and Local Officials in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 129]
IM-CA-0116-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Proposed Brief for Tahirih Justice Center, et al., as Amici Curiae in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction and Defendants' Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 130]
IM-CA-0116-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae the City of New York, 20 Local Governments, and the United States Conference of Mayors in Opposition to Plaintiff's Preliminary Injunction Motion and in Support of Defendants' Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 131]
IM-CA-0116-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae Administrative Law, Constitutional Law, Criminal Law and Immigration Law Scholars in Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 132]
IM-CA-0116-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amicus Curiae the California State Senate in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 133]
IM-CA-0116-0022.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae California Labor Federation, California State Council of Service Employees, et al. in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 134]
IM-CA-0116-0023.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Anti-Defamation League's Amicus Curiae Brief in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 135]
IM-CA-0116-0024.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of National Immigration Law Center and 79 Other Organizations as Amici Curiae in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 136]
IM-CA-0116-0025.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae Faith-Based Organizations in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 137]
IM-CA-0116-0026.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Proposed Brief of Amici Curiae of Immigration, Labor and Employment Law Scholars in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for Preliminary Injunction Re: AB 450 [ECF# 138]
IM-CA-0116-0027.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of the District of Columbia and the States of Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, and Washington as Amici Curiae in Support of Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiff's Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 139]
IM-CA-0116-0028.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Legal Services Providers Amici Curiae Brief [ECF# 140]
IM-CA-0116-0029.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/21/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae County of Orange and Sandra Hutchens, Sheriff-Coroner for the County of Orange [ECF# 181]
IM-CA-0116-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Amici Curiae the California Partnership to End Domestic Violence and the Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights [ECF# 182]
IM-CA-0116-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Re: The United States of America's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 193] (314 F.Supp.3d 1077) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0116-0013.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/05/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Re: State of California's Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 197] (2018 WL 3361055) (E.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0116-0014.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 07/09/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion [Ct. of App. ECF# 216] (921 F.3d 865)
IM-CA-0116-0030.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 04/19/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
show all people docs
Judges Hurwitz, Andrew David (Ninth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0030
Mendez, John A. (E.D. Cal.) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0013 | IM-CA-0116-0014 | IM-CA-0116-9000
Newman, Kendall J (E.D. Cal.) [Magistrate] show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-9000
Smith, Milan Dale Jr. (Ninth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0030
Watford, Paul Jeffrey (Ninth Circuit) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0030
Plaintiff's Lawyers Bingham, Lauren Crowell (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Darrow, Joseph A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Flentje, August E. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Genova, Francesca (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Gray, Kathryne M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Peachey, William Charles (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Press, Joshua S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Readler, Chad Andrew (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Reuveni, Erez (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Scott, McGregor W. (California) show/hide docs
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Shelledy, David (California) show/hide docs
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Defendant's Lawyers Amdur, Spencer E. W. (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0012 | IM-CA-0116-9000
Chuang, Christine (California) show/hide docs
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Gelernt, Lee (New York) show/hide docs
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Hakl, Anthony R. III (California) show/hide docs
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Jadwat, Omar C. (New York) show/hide docs
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Mass, Julia Harumi (California) show/hide docs
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Melton, Cherokee Dawn−Marie (California) show/hide docs
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Onyeagbako, Maureen C. (California) show/hide docs
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Phillips, Bradley S. (California) show/hide docs
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Salceda, Angelica H. (California) show/hide docs
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Sherman, Lee Isaac (California) show/hide docs
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Wofsy, Cody H. (California) show/hide docs
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Other Lawyers Alikhan, Loren L. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0028
Almadani, Monica Marie-Ramirez (California) show/hide docs
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Axelrod, Julie B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Babbitt, Christopher Edmunds (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Badlani, Chirag (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Balderas, Hector (New Mexico) show/hide docs
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Bansal, Jessica Karp (California) show/hide docs
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Bee, Maria (California) show/hide docs
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Benbrook, Bradley A. (California) show/hide docs
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Bender, Robyn R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Bergeron, Claire M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Bernstein, Erin Brianna (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0018
Blackwood, Eileen M. (Vermont) show/hide docs
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Bondi, Pamela Jo (Florida) show/hide docs
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Bronson, Kristin M. (Colorado) show/hide docs
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Bryant, Phil (Mississippi) show/hide docs
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Calia, Kevin A. (California) show/hide docs
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Carr, Christopher M. (Georgia) show/hide docs
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Carroll, Catherine M.A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Carter, Zachary W. (New York) show/hide docs
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Carter, Margaret L. (California) show/hide docs
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Chan, Angela (California) show/hide docs
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Cooper, Jon (Tennessee) show/hide docs
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Coursolle, Abigail K. (California) show/hide docs
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Curtin, Timothy R. (New York) show/hide docs
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Davies, Jamison (New York) show/hide docs
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Davis, James E. (Texas) show/hide docs
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Denn, Matthew P. (Delaware) show/hide docs
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DeWine, Michael (Ohio) show/hide docs
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Doseck, Barbara J. (Ohio) show/hide docs
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Eisenberg, Sara J. (California) show/hide docs
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Espiritu, Nicholas David (California) show/hide docs
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Ferguson, Robert W. (Washington) show/hide docs
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Flynn, Ronald P. (California) show/hide docs
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Foxx, Kimberly M. (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Freeman, Steven M. (New York) show/hide docs
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Garlick, Melissa (New York) show/hide docs
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Geltzer, Joshua A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Gill, Kathleen E. (New York) show/hide docs
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Glowa, Nancy E. (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
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Golden, John Wisner (California) show/hide docs
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Gorelick, Jamie S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Grewal, Gurbir S. (New Jersey) show/hide docs
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Grusin, Sarah (California) show/hide docs
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Guizar, Monica T. (California) show/hide docs
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Hacker, David J. (Texas) show/hide docs
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Hajec, Christopher J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Hale, Michael A. (California) show/hide docs
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Hansen, Greta Suzanne (California) show/hide docs
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Herrera, Dennis J. (California) show/hide docs
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Hill, Curtis T. Jr. (Indiana) show/hide docs
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Hilton, Yvonne (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Holder, Eric H. Jr. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Holguín, Carlos R. (California) show/hide docs
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Holmes, Peter S. (Washington) show/hide docs
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Holtzman, Jonathan V. (California) show/hide docs
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Hudson, Esra Acikalin (California) show/hide docs
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Hunter, Mike (Oklahoma) show/hide docs
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Iorlano, Diana (California) show/hide docs
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Jepsen, George (Connecticut) show/hide docs
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Joseph, Lawrence J (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Kaufman, Michael (California) show/hide docs
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Keller, Scott A. (Texas) show/hide docs
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Kelly, William G. Jr. (New York) show/hide docs
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Kozina, Vladimir F. (California) show/hide docs
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Landry, Jeff (Louisiana) show/hide docs
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Lavine, Aaron Olshina (New York) show/hide docs
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Laxalt, Adam Paul (Nevada) show/hide docs
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Lederer, Caryn C (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Lee, Elaine Y. (California) show/hide docs
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Lee, Mollie M. (California) show/hide docs
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Leung , Jade H. (California) show/hide docs
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Madigan, Lisa (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Marshall, Steven T. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Mateer, Jeffrey C. (Texas) show/hide docs
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May, Michael P. (Wisconsin) show/hide docs
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McCord, Mary B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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McLean, Joseph (California) show/hide docs
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McPherson, Malia (California) show/hide docs
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Menz, Sheila E. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Miller, Steven C. (California) show/hide docs
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Mitchell, Sarah F. (California) show/hide docs
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Morosco, Taylor Cross (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Morrisey, Patrick (West Virginia) show/hide docs
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Nannery, Valerie M (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Narayan, Kavita Kandala (California) show/hide docs
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Nordon, Michael G. (California) show/hide docs
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Parker, Barbara J (California) show/hide docs
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Pasquarella, Jennifer (California) show/hide docs
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Paxton, Ken (Texas) show/hide docs
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Perkins, Martha Jane (North Carolina) show/hide docs
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Perrin, Robert Ward (California) show/hide docs
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Peterson, Doug (Nebraska) show/hide docs
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Phillips, Wendy J. (California) show/hide docs
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Piers, Matthew J. (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Pratt, Marcel S. (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Racine, Karl A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Reaves, John Daniel (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Reeve, Tracy (Oregon) show/hide docs
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Rehberg, Sarah R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Rice, Daniel B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Rosenblum, Ellen F. (Oregon) show/hide docs
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Ross, Linda Margaret (California) show/hide docs
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Roth, Stuart J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Rutledge, Leslie (Arkansas) show/hide docs
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Sandick, Harry (New York) show/hide docs
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Scheidegger, Kent S. (California) show/hide docs
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Schey, Peter A. (California) show/hide docs
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Schmidt, Derek (Kansas) show/hide docs
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Schuette, Bill (Michigan) show/hide docs
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Schwartz, Michael D. (New York) show/hide docs
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Segal, Susan L. (Minnesota) show/hide docs
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Sekulow, Jay Alan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Sekulow, Jordan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Serrano, Javier (California) show/hide docs
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Shallman, Daniel N. (California) show/hide docs
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Siskel, Edward N. (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Starr, Brantley D. (Texas) show/hide docs
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Surtees, Geoffrey R. (Michigan) show/hide docs
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Suvor, Daniel R (California) show/hide docs
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Suzuki, Russell A. (Hawaii) show/hide docs
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Thomas, Gregory L. (Indiana) show/hide docs
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Trice, Laura Susan (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0018
Trivedi, Harit Upendra (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0017 | IM-CA-0116-9000
Tully, Daniel Joseph (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0018 | IM-CA-0116-9000
Turpin, Rachel B. (Washington) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0020
Vakili, Bardis (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0012
Venezia, Mark S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0006
Ventresca, Ivano Michael (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0022
Weissglass, Jonathan (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0025 | IM-CA-0116-9000
Whalley, Jana (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0025
White, Edward L. III (Michigan) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0003
Wilcox, Dale L. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0008
Williams, James R. (California) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0018
Wilson, Alan (South Carolina) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0004
Wright, Francis X. Jr. (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0020
Zimmerman, Erik (Michigan) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0003
Zionts, David M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
IM-CA-0116-0022

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