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Case Name Inland Empire Immigrant Youth Collective v. Duke [later Nielsen] IM-CA-0105
Docket / Court 5:17-cv-02048 ( C.D. Cal. )
State/Territory California
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Special Collection Civil Rights Challenges to Trump Immigration Enforcement Orders
Attorney Organization ACLU Chapters (any)
ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project
ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU of Southern California
Case Summary
On Oct. 5, 2017, the Inland Empire Immigrant Youth Collective and one of its members sued the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and its components U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Represented by the American Civil Liberties ... read more >
On Oct. 5, 2017, the Inland Empire Immigrant Youth Collective and one of its members sued the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and its components U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). Represented by the American Civil Liberties Union of Southern California and the ACLU's national Immigrants' Rights Project, plaintiffs filed their complaint in the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California.

The organizational plaintiff is a grassroots association led by immigrant youth. The individual plaintiff, a 23-year-old three-time Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) recipient, is one of its members. In Feb. 2017, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) arrested him and placed him into removal proceedings, on grounds that he had smuggled undocumented immigrants. However, the Immigration Judge rejected this allegation and plaintiff was never charged with any crime. Nevertheless, defendants revoked his DACA status, including his work authorization, and he could not have it reinstated.

Plaintiffs alleged that in addition to this one incident, defendants were revoking other DACA recipients' status based not on disqualifying convictions, but on minor incidents in criminal records or unsubstantiated suspicions of criminal conduct, including arrests and charges later resolved in the applicants' favor. These status terminations lacked advance notice, a hearing, or an opportunity for reinstatement. Plaintiffs sought injunctive and declaratory relief, as well as certification of a nationwide class of people whose DACA status had been unlawfully revoked. Plaintiff argued that, in terminating DACA status without notice and hearing, defendants violated the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment and the Administrative Procedures Act (APA).

On Oct. 6, this case was assigned to Judge Michael W. Fitzgerald.
Plaintiffs moved for a preliminary injunction on Oct. 18. They argued they were likely to succeed on the merits and that the individual plaintiff would suffer irreparable harm without reinstatement of his DACA status. Plaintiffs pointed to two recent preliminary injunctions of revocation of DACA status without due process, in Gonzales Torres and Colotl Coyotl.

On Oct. 30, defendants responded, opposing plaintiffs' preliminary injunction motion. Defendants argued that plaintiffs were unlikely to succeed on the merits, first because the District Court lacked jurisdiction over immigration removal proceedings, and also because DACA was a discretionary DHS program not protected by the Constitution. Plaintiffs replied on Nov. 6. The case was transferred to Judge Philip S. Gutierrez on Nov. 14.

After a Nov. 20 motion hearing, Judge Gutierrez granted plaintiffs' preliminary injunction motion. Judge Gutierrez first held that the individual plaintiff had demonstrated a likelihood of success on the merits of his APA claim that defendants' revocation of his DACA, based solely on his deportation proceedings, was arbitrary and capricious. The individual plaintiff had also demonstrated the existence of irreparable harm due to loss of income and job opportunities. Further, neither a balancing of hardships nor the public interest favored defendants. Judge Gutierrez enjoined USCIS's decision to terminate the individual plaintiff's DACA status and accompanying work authorization. 2017 WL 5900061.

On Dec. 21-29, plaintiffs filed an amended complaint, motion for class certification, and motion for preliminary injunction. The amended complaint added two more individual plaintiffs who had also lost DACA status after ICE initiated removal proceedings against them. Plaintiffs sought to certify two nationwide classes of DACA recipients lacking disqualifying criminal convictions: a "notice class" (whose status was revoked without notice), and an "enforcement priority class" (whose status was revoked after being classified as an enforcement priority). In the preliminary injunction motion, plaintiffs asked the Court to enjoin DHS's revocation of the individual plaintiffs' and proposed class members' DACA and work permits.

Defendants opposed plaintiffs' amended complaint and motions on Feb. 1-14. Regarding the class certification motion, defendants argued that they had discretion to revoke DACA without notice once enforcement proceedings started and without court intervention, making class certification instead of individual evaluation improper. As for the preliminary injunction motion and amended complaint, defendants argued that plaintiffs lacked standing and ripeness, the Court lacked jurisdiction, or plaintiffs were unlikely to succeed on the merits, because defendants' discretion in revoking DACA was unconstrained by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), APA, or Constitution. Plaintiffs responded on Feb. 12 and later on Mar. 26; defendants replied on Apr. 2. The Court will hold a hearing on Apr. 16.

On Feb. 26, Judge Gutierrez granted plaintiffs' motions for class certification and a class-wide preliminary injunction. Regarding the class certification motion, Judge Gutierrez held that because plaintiffs committed no disqualifying criminal convictions, they were entitled to notice and opportunity to respond, and so they were properly class members. The class was certified as:
All recipients of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals ("DACA") who, after January 19, 2017, have had or will have their DACA grant and employment authorization revoked without notice or an opportunity to respond, even though they have not been convicted of a disqualifying criminal offense.
Regarding the preliminary injunction motion, Judge Gutierrez first held that the Court had jurisdiction. Next, he held that plaintiffs were likely to succeed on the merits of their APA claim (that automatic termination was arbitrary and capricious) and would suffer irreparable without an injunction (because of loss of earnings, job opportunities, and drivers' licenses without DACA). 2018 WL 1061408.

A Mar. 26 order clarified that the class consisted of DACA recipients, not subject to certain disqualifying categories, who have had or will have their DACA and employment authorization terminated without notice or opportunity to respond. The rest of the order specified the procedures by which defendants had to identify and notify the class.

On Apr. 19, Judge Gutierrez denied defendants' motion to dismiss. First, he held that the organizational and individual plaintiffs had standing, and that the INA did not bar jurisdiction. Next, he held that plaintiffs had stated valid claims under the APA (i.e., that the applicable regulations do not allow automatic DACA revocation on the basis of a removal order, rendering it arbitrary and capricious) and under the due process doctrine (i.e., that the DACA grant is a conferred benefit that requires procedural safeguards before termination).

Defendants then, on Apr. 26, appealed the preliminary injunction order to the Ninth Circuit, which opened a new docket (No. 18-55564).

This case is ongoing in both the district and circuit courts.

Ava Morgenstern - 05/05/2018


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Benefit Source
DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals)
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief granted
General
Drivers Licenses
Education
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Immigration/Border
Constitutional rights
Criminal prosecution
Deportation - criteria
Deportation - procedure
Employment
Status/Classification
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
Work authorization - criteria
Work authorization - procedures
Plaintiff Type
Non-profit NON-religious organization
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Defendant(s) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Plaintiff Description An organizational plaintiff of an immigrant-youth-led grassroots association, individual plaintiffs whose DACA status was terminated, and two nationwide classes of DACA recipients lacking disqualifying criminal convictions
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU Chapters (any)
ACLU Immigrants' Rights Project
ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU of Southern California
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Source of Relief Litigation
Order Duration 2017 - n/a
Filing Year 2017
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
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  Inland Empire – Immigrant Youth Collective v. Duke
www.aclu.org
Date: Oct. 18, 2017
By: American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Implementation of Executive Order 13768, "Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
The Washington Post
Date: May 22, 2017
By: Jefferson Sessions (U.S. Department of Justice)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Implementing the President's Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements Policies (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Re: Enforcement of the Immigration Laws to Serve the National Interest (Final, 2/20/2017)
dhs.gov
Date: Feb. 20, 2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (United States Department of Homeland Security)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Executive Order 13767: Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 27, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
Citation: 82 Fed. Reg. Presidential Documents 8793 (Jan. 27, 2017)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ]

  Executive Order 13768: Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 25, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
5:17−cv−02048−MWF−SHK (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0105-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/26/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Class Action Complaint [ECF# 1]
IM-CA-0105-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/05/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiff Jesus Alonso Arreola Robles's Motion For a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 16]
IM-CA-0105-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/18/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Memorandum of Points and Authorities In Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion For Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 23]
IM-CA-0105-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/30/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiff's Reply in Support of Plaintiff Jesus Alonso Arreola Robles's Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 25]
IM-CA-0105-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/06/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Plaintiff's Motion For a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 31] (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0105-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/20/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
First Amended Class Action Complaint [ECF# 32]
IM-CA-0105-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs' Memorandum of Law in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Class Certification [ECF# 33-1]
IM-CA-0105-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum of Law in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Classwide Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 34-1]
IM-CA-0105-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/21/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs’ Motion for Class Certification [ECF# 39]
IM-CA-0105-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/29/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs’ Motion for a Classwide Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 40]
IM-CA-0105-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/29/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Class Certification [ECF# 53]
IM-CA-0105-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/01/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 54]
IM-CA-0105-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/01/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants’ Notice of Motion & Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Support of Defendants’ Motion to Dismiss Amended Complaint [ECF# 55]
IM-CA-0105-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/05/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Reply in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Class Certification [ECF# 57]
IM-CA-0105-0014.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Reply in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Classwide Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 58]
IM-CA-0105-0015.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/12/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Amended Notice of Motion & Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Support of Defendants' Motion to Dismiss Amended Complaint [ECF# 59]
IM-CA-0105-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/14/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Plaintiffs' Motion for Class Certification and Granting Plaintiffs' Motion for a Classwide Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 61] (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0105-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/26/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs' Opposition to Defendants' Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 73]
IM-CA-0105-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/26/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Modified Class Definition and Implementation Procedures – With Certain Dates Added [ECF# 74] (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0105-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/27/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Reply in Support of Defendants' Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 75]
IM-CA-0105-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/02/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Denying Defendants' Motion to Dismiss [ECF# 79] (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0105-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/19/2018
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Judges Gutierrez, Philip S. (C.D. Cal.)
IM-CA-0105-0005 | IM-CA-0105-0017 | IM-CA-0105-0019 | IM-CA-0105-0021 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Kewalramani, Sahshi H. Court not on record [Magistrate]
IM-CA-0105-9000
Plaintiff's Lawyers Ahmed, Sameer (New York)
IM-CA-0105-0007
Arulanantham, Ahilan T (California)
IM-CA-0105-0001 | IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0010 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Eiland, Katrina L. (California)
IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0009 | IM-CA-0105-0010 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-0018 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Hausman, David (New York)
IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0009 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-0018 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Kaufman, Michael Bryan (California)
IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0010 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Kwon, Dae Keun (California)
IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0010 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Newell, Jennifer Chang (California)
IM-CA-0105-0001 | IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0009 | IM-CA-0105-0010 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-0018 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Tan, Michael K. T. (New York)
IM-CA-0105-0002 | IM-CA-0105-0004 | IM-CA-0105-0006 | IM-CA-0105-0007 | IM-CA-0105-0008 | IM-CA-0105-0009 | IM-CA-0105-0010 | IM-CA-0105-0014 | IM-CA-0105-0015 | IM-CA-0105-0018 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Kisor, Colin A. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0105-0011 | IM-CA-0105-0012
Peachey, William Charles (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0105-0003 | IM-CA-0105-0011 | IM-CA-0105-0012 | IM-CA-0105-0013 | IM-CA-0105-0016 | IM-CA-0105-0020
Readler, Chad A. (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0105-0003 | IM-CA-0105-0011 | IM-CA-0105-0012 | IM-CA-0105-0013 | IM-CA-0105-0016 | IM-CA-0105-0020
Robins, Jeffrey S (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0105-0003 | IM-CA-0105-0011 | IM-CA-0105-0012 | IM-CA-0105-0013 | IM-CA-0105-0016 | IM-CA-0105-0020 | IM-CA-0105-9000
Walker, James Joseph (District of Columbia)
IM-CA-0105-0003 | IM-CA-0105-0011 | IM-CA-0105-0012 | IM-CA-0105-0013 | IM-CA-0105-0016 | IM-CA-0105-0020 | IM-CA-0105-9000

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