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Case Name Pars Equality Center v. Trump IM-DC-0026
Docket / Court 1:17-cv-00255 ( D.D.C. )
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Presidential/Gubernatorial Authority
Special Collection Trump Travel Ban Challenges
Attorney Organization Lawyers Comm. for Civil Rights Under Law
Southern Poverty Law Center
Case Summary
This action, filed February 8, 2017, challenged President Trump’s January 27, 2017, Executive Order (EO-1) ban on admission to the US of nationals of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen. The complaint was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, and it sought " ... read more >
This action, filed February 8, 2017, challenged President Trump’s January 27, 2017, Executive Order (EO-1) ban on admission to the US of nationals of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria and Yemen. The complaint was filed in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, and it sought "to protect and defend the Iranian-American community in the United States and abroad from the harmful and discriminatory effects of the Executive Order and its implementation." The complaint argued that the EO-1's enforcement violated the First Amendment Establishment Clause, Fifth Amendment rights to Equal Protection and Due Process rights, the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, and the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.). The complaint sought declaratory and injunctive relief. The plaintiffs were represented by private counsel and the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law.

The plaintiffs were individual Iranian nationals as well as Iranian-American organizations. The individuals included students with F-1 visas, a lawful permanent US resident, dual citizens of Iran and the US, a resident of Iran with an approved J-1 visa, refugee families approved for resettlement through the US Refugee Admissions Program, a family awaiting reunification in the US after receiving green cards, a refugee couple that went through the vetting process of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, and an asylum grantee currently in the US. The organizations were the Pars Equality Center, the Iranian American Bar Association, the National Iranian American Council, and the Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans.

The case was assigned to District Judge Tanya Chutkan.

The same day as they filed the complaint, the plaintiffs moved for a preliminary injunction to enjoin defendants from enforcing the provisions of EO-1 that amounted to the alleged violations.

On March 6, 2017, prompted by adverse developments in the Ninth Circuit in Washington v. Trump, the President rescinded EO-1 and replaced it with a narrower one, Executive Order 13780 (EO-2). That day, the government filed notice in this case of the new EO.

In response to EO-2, the plaintiffs filed an amended complaint and motion for preliminary injunction on March 16, which mooted their February 8 motion for a preliminary injunction.

Numerous civil rights organizations filed an amicus brief in support of the plaintiffs' position on Mar. 23: the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, the Center for Constitutional Rights, the Center for Reproductive Rights, the Chicago Lawyer’s Committee for Civil Rights, the Judge David L. Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, the Mississippi Center for Justice, the National Center for Lesbian Rights, the National Coalition on Black Civic Participation, the Southern Coalition for Social Justice, and the Washington Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights and Urban Affairs. The brief added the argument that "even if this court were to review the EO under a 'rational basis' test [rather than the strict scrutiny test the plaintiffs seek], the Order would still violate the Constitution’s equal protection guarantee." On April 4, two additional briefs were filed in support of the plaintiffs by former national security officials as well as Human Rights First, KIND (Kids in Need of Defense), and Tahirih Justice Center.

On May 11, after an evidentiary hearing on the preliminary injunction motion in this case and Universal Muslim Association of America v. Trump, Judge Chutkan stayed resolution of plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction. The court found that plaintiffs could not show that they faced irreparable harm, citing the two nationwide injunctions that were then in effect.

On June 2, the government filed an emergency motion to stay the proceedings pending Supreme Court review ofInternational Refugee Assistance Project (IRAP v. Trump which the court granted while denying without prejudice the motion for a preliminary injunction on June 20. The court reasoned that in light of the "substantial overlap between the legal issues present here and those that the Supreme Court," a stay was "the most appropriate path for conserving the court’s resources and adjudicating these cases in the most efficient manner possible." The plaintiffs filed several motions in response, including a motion to lift the stay, a motion for a preliminary injunction, and a motion for temporary restraining order. The court denied them all. 2017 WL 7201732.

The Supreme Court was set to hear oral argument in IRAP on October 10, 2017. However, the travel ban imposed by EO-2 was set to expire in the weeks leading up to oral argument. On September 24—the same day the ninety-day ban was set to expire—the Trump Administration issued EO-3 which indefinitely restricted travel from the following eight countries: Chad, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen. In response, plaintiffs moved to have the stay lifted. On October 12, the court granted that motion in part, allowing plaintiffs to file an amended complaint and a new motion for a preliminary injunction. In their amended complaint, plaintiffs argued that the proclamation "continues the most discriminatory aspects of the prior two Executive Orders" and requested that the court impose a preliminary injunction.

A hearing on the preliminary injunction was set for November 2. However on October 25, plaintiffs filed a supplemental memo to their preliminary injunction. They noted that after they filed their motion for a preliminary injunction on October 12, the administration issued a new executive order concerning refugeesthat—when implemented based on the State Department's guidelines—amounted to an effective ban on Muslim refugees. Based on those developments, plaintiffs sought to modify the scope of the preliminary injunction to enjoin the government from "suspending processing of refugees." Plaintiffs also filed an amended complaint in early November. A preliminary injunction hearing took place on Nov. 8.

On January 3, 2018, plaintiffs filed a motion to set a briefing schedule. However, defendants opposed that motion, asking the court instead to stay this case pending the resolution of all all appellate proceedings in the IRAP and Hawaii cases. The court granted the defendants' motion for a stay on March 2, citing "substantial overlap" between plaintiffs' case here and Hawaii which was pending review by the Supreme Court. In the March 2 order, the court also dismissed plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction without prejudice.

On July 31, 2018, the plaintiffs filed notice of voluntary dismissal of the case, likely as a result of the Supreme Court's decision in Hawaii upholding the travel ban issued on June 26 (available at 138 S. Ct. 2392). The case is now closed.

Virginia Weeks - 08/05/2018
Jamie Kessler - 03/11/2018
Ava Morgenstern - 02/22/2017
Julie Aust - 03/03/2017


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Equal Protection
Establishment Clause
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief denied
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
National origin discrimination
Religion discrimination
General
Access to lawyers or judicial system
Disparate Treatment
Family reunification
Religious programs / policies
Terrorism/Post 9-11 issues
Immigration/Border
Admission - criteria
Admission - procedure
Constitutional rights
Family
Refugees
Visas - criteria
Visas - procedures
National Origin/Ethnicity
Arab/Afgani/Middle Eastern
Plaintiff Type
Non-profit NON-religious organization
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Religious Freedom Rest. Act/Religious Land Use and Inst. Persons Act (RFRA/RLUIPA)
Defendant(s) Office of the Director of National Intelligence
President of the U.S.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. Department of State
Plaintiff Description Individual Iranian nationals and Iranian-American organizations
Indexed Lawyer Organizations Lawyers Comm. for Civil Rights Under Law
Southern Poverty Law Center
Class action status sought No
Class action status outcome Not sought
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Defendant
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief None
Source of Relief None
Form of Settlement Voluntary Dismissal
Filed 02/08/2017
Case Closing Year 2018
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing IM-DC-0025 : Zadeh v. Trump (D.D.C.)
IM-DC-0027 : Universal Muslim Association of America v. Trump (D.D.C.)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  Presidential Executive Order on Resuming the United States Refugee Admissions Program with Enhanced Vetting Capabilities
Federal Register
Date: Oct. 24, 2017
By: United States
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Presidential Proclamation Enhancing Vetting Capabilities and Processes for Detecting Attempted Entry Into the United States by Terrorists or Other Public-Safety Threats
Federal Register
Date: Sep. 24, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Implementing Executive Order 13780 Following Supreme Court Ruling -- Guidance to Visa-Adjudicating Posts
Reuters
Date: Jun. 28, 2017
By: U.S. Department of State
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Presidential Memorandum for the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Homeland Security, and the Director of National Intelligence
Date: Jun. 14, 2017
By: Donald Trump (White House)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Executive Order Protecting The Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into The United States
Federal Register
Date: Mar. 6, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (President of the United States)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Memorandum to the Acting Secretary of State, the Acting Attorney General, and the Secretary of Homeland Security
The White House
Date: Feb. 1, 2017
By: Donald F. McGahn II, Counsel to the President (The White House)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Statement by Acting Attorney General Sally Yates
https://www.nytimes.com/
Date: 1/30/2017
By: Acting Attorney General Sally Yates (Department of Justice)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Statement By Secretary John Kelly on the Entry of Lawful Permanent Residents into the United States
https://www.dhs.gov/
Date: 1/29/2017
By: DHS Secretary John Kelly (Department of Homeland Security)
Citation: https://www.dhs.gov/news/2017/01/29/statement-secretary-john-kelly-entry-lawful-permanent-residents-united-states
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  OLC Memo Re: Proposed Executive Order Entitled "Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States"
Date: Jan. 27, 2017
By: Curtis Gannon (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Legal Counsel)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Executive Order: Protecting the Nation from Foreign Terrorist Entry into the United States
Federal Register
Date: Jan. 27, 2017
By: President Donald Trump (Office of the President)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  End the Travel Ban
http://endthetravelban.com/
Date: 2017
By: Pars Equality Center, the Iranian American Bar Association, the National Iranian American Council, and the Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans (Pars Equality Center)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Court Docket(s)
D.D.C.
07/31/2018
1:17-cv-00255-TSC
IM-DC-0026-9000.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
D.D.C.
02/08/2017
Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 9]
IM-DC-0026-0002.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
02/16/2017
[U.S.] Emergency Motion for Stay of Existing Deadlines Pending Issuance of a New Executive Order [ECF# 16]
IM-DC-0026-0003.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/02/2017
Brief of Amici Curiae Americans United for Separation of Church and State and the Southern Poverty Law Center in Support of Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 23]
IM-DC-0026-0005.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/15/2017
Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 35]
IM-DC-0026-0011.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/23/2017
Amici Curiae Brief of National and Regional Civil Rights Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs’ Motion for a Preliminary Injunction (and motion for leave to file) [ECF# 38]
IM-DC-0026-0014.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/27/2017
Brief of Former National Security Officials as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs (and motion for leave to file) [ECF# 40]
IM-DC-0026-0015.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/28/2017
Motion and Memorandum of Points and Authorities of National Urban League and National Association for the Advancement of Colored People for Leave to Join Amici Curiae Brief [ECF# 41]
IM-DC-0026-0016.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/28/2017
Brief for the Foundation for the Children of Iran, Children of Persia and Iranian Alliances Across Borders as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs’ Motion for a Preliminary Injunction (and motion for leave to file) [ECF# 42]
IM-DC-0026-0017.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/28/2017
Amici Curiae Brief of National and Regional Civil Rights Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs’ Motion for a Preliminary Injunction (and motion for leave to file) [ECF# 49]
IM-DC-0026-0018.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Amici Curiae Brief of National and Regional Civil Rights Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 55]
IM-DC-0026-0013.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Amicus Curiae Brief from Professor Victor Williams, of the America First Lawyers Association, in Support of President Donald Trump [ECF# 56]
IM-DC-0026-0023.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Amici Curiae Brief of National and Regional Civil Rights Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 57]
IM-DC-0026-0024.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Brief of Former National Security Officials as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs [ECF# 58]
IM-DC-0026-0025.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Brief for the Foundation for the Children of Iran, Children of Persia and Iranian Alliances Across Borders as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 59]
IM-DC-0026-0026.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Amici Curiae Brief of National and Regional Civil Rights Organizations in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 60]
IM-DC-0026-0027.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Proposed Brief Amicus Curiae of Howard University School of Law Civil Rights Clinic on Behalf of Law Professors in Support of Plaintiffs Pars Equality Center [ECF# 61]
IM-DC-0026-0028.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/31/2017
Proposed Amicus Curiae of HIAS in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 62]
IM-DC-0026-0029.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
04/04/2017
Brief of Former National Security Officials as Amici Curiae in Support of Plaintiffs [ECF# 70]
IM-DC-0026-0032.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
04/04/2017
Brief of Amici Curiae Human Rights First, KIND, and Tahirih Justice Center in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 71]
IM-DC-0026-0033.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
05/11/2017
Order [Temporarily Staying Resolution of Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction] [ECF# 84]
IM-DC-0026-0040.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
06/20/2017
Order [granting stay] [ECF# 91]
IM-DC-0026-0044.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
07/19/2017
Order [denying plaintiffs' motion to lift the stay and for a preliminary injunction] [ECF# 101] (2017 WL 7201732)
IM-DC-0026-0051.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
10/12/2017
Order [ECF# 105]
IM-DC-0026-0052.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
10/12/2017
Plaintiffs' Motion For Preliminary Injunction [ECF# 107]
IM-DC-0026-0054.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
11/03/2017
Third Amended Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief [ECF# 123]
IM-DC-0026-0060.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
D.D.C.
03/02/2018
Order [ECF# 143]
IM-DC-0026-0066.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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