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Case Name Whitford v. Gill VR-WI-0018
Docket / Court 3:15-cv-00421-bbc ( W.D. Wis. )
State/Territory Wisconsin
Case Type(s) Election/Voting Rights
Speech and Religious Freedom
Case Summary
On July 5, 2015 registered democratic voters in Wisconsin filed this lawsuit in the US District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. The plaintiffs sued the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board under §§ 1983 and 1988, claiming violations of their First and Fourteenth amendment rights ... read more >
On July 5, 2015 registered democratic voters in Wisconsin filed this lawsuit in the US District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. The plaintiffs sued the Wisconsin Government Accountability Board under §§ 1983 and 1988, claiming violations of their First and Fourteenth amendment rights. The plaintiffs, represented by public interest and private counsel, sought declaratory, injunctive, and monetary relief. Specifically, the plaintiffs requested a state law establishing new, constitutional districts or a constitutional redistricting plan. The plaintiffs claimed that the Act 43 district plan first adopted in 2012 created partisan gerrymandered districts for the purposes of helping Republican candidates win a majority of seats in the State Assembly.

On July 8, 2015, the plaintiffs sought an order enjoining the implementation of the gerrymandered districts for the 2016 election. The defendants filed a motion to dismiss the complaint, which was denied on December 17, 2015 by the court on the grounds that the “plaintiffs’ complaint is sufficient to state a claim upon which relief may be granted.” 151 F.Supp.3d 918.

Defendants later filed a motion for summary judgment, which was denied on April 7, 2016 because “there are factual disputes regarding the validity of plaintiffs’ proposed measurement for determining the existence of constitutional violation.” 180 F.Supp.3d 583.

On November 21, 2016, Judge Kenneth Ripple held that Act 43, the gerrymandered redistricting plan, was unconstitutional. The court found that one of the objectives of the redistricting plan in question was to make it difficult for Democratic voters “to translate their votes into legislative seats” and ensure a Republican majority in the Assembly. 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 160811. In the order, the Judge deferred ruling on an appropriate remedy and asked parties to brief on this issue. After the parties submitted their briefs, the court ordered the following remedial plan on Jan. 27, 2017: the court required the state legislature to enact a new redistricting map that the governor would be charged with approving by Nov. 1, 2017. The court found that contrary to the plaintiffs' request, it was unnecessary for the court to involve itself in creating map. Further, in anticipation of the defendants' appeal to the Supreme Court, the court found that the proposed remedy: "affords the Legislature ample time to enact a plan contingent on the Supreme Court’s affirmance of our judgment. While it allows the defendants and the candidates to make plans for the November 2018 election only on a contingent basis, at least they will be able to prepare for that contingency in the context of a concrete alternate map." The court entered judgment in favor of the plaintiffs that day and ordered the case dismissed.

On Feb. 22, 2017, the court amended its judgment to retain jurisdiction as to remedial plan so that it may act in the event of legislative impasse to impose an adequate remedy.

Two days later, the defendants gave notice that they had filed an appeal in the Supreme Court of the United States. At issue before SCOTUS was (1) if the district court had the authority to consider a statewide challenge to Wisconsin's redistricting plan rather than requiring a district-by-district analysis, (2) if Wisconsin's redistricting plan was impermissible partisan gerrymandering despite complying with standard redistricting principles, (3) if the district court's partisan-gerrymandering test was proper, (4) if the defendants could present additional evidence showing that they would have prevailed under the district court's test after the court announced the test, and (5) if partisan-gerrymandering claims were justiciable.

On June 19, SCOTUS ordered the district court judgment stayed pending this appeal. After the parties and amici submitted numerous briefs, SCOTUS heard oral arguments on Oct. 3, 2017.

The case is ongoing.

Rachel Barr - 01/27/2017
Virginia Weeks - 11/05/2017


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Freedom of speech/association
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
General
Disparate Impact
Voting
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Voting
Redistricting/district composition
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Defendant(s) Gerald C. Nichol, Thomas Barland, John Franke, Harold V. Froehlich, Elsa Lamelas, Kevin J. Kennedy, and Timothy Vocke
Plaintiff Description Registered Democratic voters in Wisconsin
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief None yet
Source of Relief Litigation
Filing Year 2015
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
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Docket(s)
3:15-cv-00421-bbc (W.D. Wis.)
VR-WI-0018-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/03/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint [ECF# 1]
VR-WI-0018-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/08/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Complaint Exhibits [ECF# 1-1]
VR-WI-0018-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/08/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order [Motion to Dismiss] [ECF# 43] (151 F.Supp.3d 918) (W.D. Wis.)
VR-WI-0018-0002.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 12/17/2015
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order [Motion for Summary Judgment, Motion in Limine] [ECF# 94] (180 F.Supp.3d 583) (W.D. Wis.)
VR-WI-0018-0003.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 04/07/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order (218 F.Supp.3d 837) (W.D. Wis.)
VR-WI-0018-0004.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/21/2016
Opinion and Order [ECF# 182] (W.D. Wis.)
VR-WI-0018-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/27/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of the Wisconsin Institute For Law and Liberty as Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0007.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 04/24/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For the States of Texas et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0008.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 04/24/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amici Curiae Wisconsin State Senate and Wisconsin State Assembly In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0009.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 04/24/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Judicial Watch, Inc. and Allied Educational Foundation In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0010.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 04/24/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae the Republican National Committee and the National Republican Congressional Committee In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0011.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 04/24/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Motion to Affirm
VR-WI-0018-0060.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 05/08/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief Opposing Motion to Affirm
VR-WI-0018-0061.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 05/18/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0062.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 07/28/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amicus Curiae Republican National Committee In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0012.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/03/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Judicial Watch, Inc. and Allied Educational Foundation In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0013.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/03/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Tennessee State Senators In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0014.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/03/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of the Wisconsin Institute For Law & Liberty as Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0015.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae the Majority Leader and Temporary President of the New York State Senate and Members of the Majority Coalition In Support of the Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0016.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For the States of Texas, et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0017.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amici Curiae Wisconsin State Senate and Wisconsin State Assembly In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0018.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amicus Curiae Southeastern Legal Foundation In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0019.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amicus Curiae the Legacy Foundation In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0020.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Republican State Leadership Committee As Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0021.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amicus Curiae the National Republican Congressional Committee in Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0022.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amicus Curiae Wisconsin Manufacturers & Commerce In Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0023.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of the Plaintiffs In the Maryland Redistricting Litigation, Benisek v. Lamone (Formerly Shapiro v. McManus) As Amici Curiae Supporting Neither Party
VR-WI-0018-0024.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of the American Civil Rights Union and the Public Interest Legal Foundation as Amici Curiae in Support of Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0025.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/04/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Eric McGhee As Amicus Curiae In Support of Neither Party
VR-WI-0018-0026.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/10/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Bernard Grofman and Ronald Keith Gaddie As Amici Curiae In Support of Neither Party
VR-WI-0018-0027.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/10/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0063.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/28/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Heather K. Gerken, et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0028.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/30/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amicus Curiae Eric S. Lander In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0029.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 08/31/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amici Curiae American Jewish Committee, et al. In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0030.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/01/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of the American Civil Liberties Union, et al. As Amici Curiae, In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0031.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/01/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc. et al. In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0032.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/01/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of 44 Election Law, Scientific Evidence, and Empirical Legal Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0033.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/01/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Colleagues of Professor Norman Dorsen As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0034.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/01/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Political Science Professors In Support of Appellees and Affirmance
VR-WI-0018-0035.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Professor D. Theodore Rave As Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0036.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Political Geography Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0037.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For the Brennan Center For Justice at N.Y.U. School of Law As Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0038.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Law Professors In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0039.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Senators John McCain and Sheldon Whitehouse In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0040.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Historians In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0041.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Republican Statewide Officials As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0042.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For the States of Oregon, et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0043.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae League of Conservation Voters et al. In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0044.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amicus Curiae Center For Media and Democracy In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0045.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of the Georgia State Conference of the NAACP et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0046.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of California Citizens Redistricting Commission and FairDistricts Now, Inc. As Amici Curiae In SUpport of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0047.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Represent.Us and Richard Painter In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0048.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Constitutional Law Professors As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0049.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Current Members of Congress and Bipartisan Former Members of Congress As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0050.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Amici Curiae Bipartisan Group of 65 Current and Former State Legislators In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0051.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Common Cause As Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0052.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of the League of Women Voters As Amicus Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0053.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief Fairvote and One Nation One Vote As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0054.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amici Curiae Election Law and Constitutional Law Scholars In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0055.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of International Municipal Lawyers Association, et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0056.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief For Bipartisan Group of Current and Former Members of Congress As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0057.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Amicus Curiae David Boyle In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0058.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Brief of Robin Best, et al. As Amici Curiae In Support of Appellees
VR-WI-0018-0059.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/05/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
Reply Brief For Appellants
VR-WI-0018-0064.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/15/2017
Source: Supreme Court website
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Judges Crabb, Barbara Brandriff (W.D. Wis.) show/hide docs
VR-WI-0018-0002 | VR-WI-0018-0003 | VR-WI-0018-0006 | VR-WI-0018-9000
Crocker, Stephen L. (W.D. Wis.) [Magistrate] show/hide docs
VR-WI-0018-9000
Griesbach, William C. (E.D. Wis.) show/hide docs
VR-WI-0018-0002 | VR-WI-0018-0003 | VR-WI-0018-0004 | VR-WI-0018-0006
Ripple, Kenneth Francis (Seventh Circuit) show/hide docs
VR-WI-0018-0002 | VR-WI-0018-0003 | VR-WI-0018-0006
Plaintiff's Lawyers Amunson, Jessica Ring (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
VR-WI-0018-0060 | VR-WI-0018-0063
Earle, Peter (Wisconsin) show/hide docs
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VR-WI-0018-0061
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VR-WI-0018-9000
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VR-WI-0018-0025
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VR-WI-0018-0032
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VR-WI-0018-0044
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VR-WI-0018-0027
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VR-WI-0018-0010 | VR-WI-0018-0013
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VR-WI-0018-0042
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