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Case Name Monroe & United States of America v. Jackson City & Madison County School Board of Education SD-TN-0002
Docket / Court 1:72-cv-01327-SHM-egb ( W.D. Tenn. )
State/Territory Tennessee
Case Type(s) School Desegregation
Attorney Organization NAACP Legal Defense Fund
Case Summary
In January 1963, plaintiffs brought this school desegregation suits in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Tennessee. The plaintiffs, African-American minor school children and their parents, sued both the defendants Jackson City school system and Monroe County school district to ... read more >
In January 1963, plaintiffs brought this school desegregation suits in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Tennessee. The plaintiffs, African-American minor school children and their parents, sued both the defendants Jackson City school system and Monroe County school district to enjoin the operation of the segregated school systems.

A note about the litigation and the two school systems: A lawsuit against both districts proceeded as one lawsuit until 1972 when the court severed the defendants, concluding that the actions against Jackson City and Madison County schools were, for all intents and purposes, distinct lawsuits. The case against Jackson City was designated as docket number 1327 and Madison County was set as 2209. Adding a further complication, however, in 1989, the two school systems were consolidated; the lawsuits, too, were then combined.

What became the two separate lawsuits and the underlying desegregation efforts followed substantially similar paths from their joint initiation.

After Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the Boards had done next to nothing integrate the schools -- the sole accommodation being that they agreed to entertain voluntary transfer requests. By the 1961-62 school year, there were no white children in black schools and only seven black students in white schools.

On June 19, 1963, the district court (Judge Bailey Brown) granted the plaintiffs' motions for summary judgment and ordered the defendants to devise and present to the court plans to desegregate both the Jackson City and Madison County schools. From this point through 1977, the plaintiffs, in both cases, engaged in a protracted battle with the Board to develop and implement a desegregation plan that would produce tangible results in a timely fashion.

In the Jackson City case, the Board presented a plan that included a free transfer provision and racially gerrymandered elementary school zones. The case reached the Supreme Court in 1968, with the Court holding that the Board was not meeting its affirmative duty to desegregate. Specifically, the geographic school zones and the free transfer program were racially discriminatory and thus unconstitutional. 391 U.S. 450 (1968). In the wake of that decision and the Court's decision in Green v. County School Board, the plaintiffs petitioned for further relief. Despite an order from the district court (and the Supreme Court's clear mandate), the Board failed to adequately revise the school attendance zone and refused to eliminate the free transfer program. The Board eventually enlisted the help of the University of Tennessee to devise a desegregation plan that was eventually accepted.

Simultaneously, in the Madison County case, the district court, in May of 1964, approved the Board's plan for gradual desegregation with a free transfer provision. The plaintiffs petitioned for further relief, asking for faculty and extracurricular desegregation. After the Supreme Court declared the free transfer program unconstitutional in the Jackson City case, the district court in Madison County required the Board to submit a new plan and in doing so to seek assistance from the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The parties continued to battle through the late 1970s on the adequacy of the Board's desegregation efforts.

In 1989, the district court approved the consolidation and unification of the school systems and in 1990 it issued a consent decree that laid out a comprehensive plan to achieve integration. Ambitious in scope, the plan included magnet schools, aggressive promotion of transfers and other initiatives to encourage integration in all facets of the school system. The plan actually produced some success; fewer schools in the district were racially identifiable. In 2000, the parties agreed to modifications of the plan, including a long-range strategy to identify steps that would lead to a declaration of unitary status. However, demographic changes undermined some of the district's desegregation success, as white families left the district at higher rates. Nevertheless, in 2010, the parties made a joint motion to declare full unitary status and dismissed the case. The district court had previously granted unitary status in some areas -- but not in student assignment. Notwithstanding the district's changing racial makeup -- and here the court noted the absence of any evidence that the growing imbalance was due to racial discrimination -- the district court, on September 24, 2010, declared the consolidated Jackson-Madison County school system fully unitary, thus releasing it from the court's oversight.

Available Opinions

City of Jackson
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 221 F.Supp. 968 (W.D. Tenn. Aug. 12, 1963)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 229 F.Supp. 580 (W.D. Tenn. May 21, 1964)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 244 F.Supp. 353 (W.D. Tenn. July 30, 1965)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 380 F.2d 955 (6th Cir. July 21, 1967)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners of the City of Jackson, 391 U.S. 450 (May 27, 1968)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 427 F.2d 1005 (6th Cir. June 19, 1970)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners of City of Jackson, 453 F.2d 259 (6th Cir. Jan. 7, 1972)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 505 F.2d 105 (6th Cir. Oct. 22, 1974)
Monroe v. Board of Commissioners, City of Jackson, 581 F.2d 581 (6th Cir. Aug. 9, 1978) (attorneys’ fees)

Madison County
Monroe v County Board of Education of Madison County, 269 F.Supp. 758 (W.D. Tenn. Aug. 2, 1965)
Monroe v County Board of Education of Madison County, 439 F.2d 804 (6th Cir. Mar. 15, 1971)
Monroe v. County Board of Education of Madison County, 505 F.2d 109 (6th Cir. Oct. 22, 1974)
Malesus Area Concerned Parents v. Monroe, 557 F.2d 1225 (6th Cir. July 13, 1977)
Monroe v. County Board of Education of Madison County, 583 F.2d 263 (6th Cir. Aug. 22, 1978) (attorneys’ fees)

Joint
Monroe v. Jackson-Madison County School System Board of Education, 2007 WL 1485267 (W.D. Tenn. May 18, 2007)
Monroe v. Jackson-Madison County School System Board of Education, 2010 WL 3732015 (W.D. Tenn. Sept. 24, 2010)


Greg Margolis - 03/08/2017


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Discrimination Prohibition
Implement complaint/dispute resolution process
Magnet school
Other requirements regarding hiring, promotion, retention
Preliminary relief granted
Recordkeeping
Reporting
Student assignment
Defendant-type
Elementary/Secondary School
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Disparate Treatment
Education
Racial segregation
School/University Facilities
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Black
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) Jackson City
Madison County
Plaintiff Description African-American minor school children, by and through their parents, who attended the Jackson City and Madison County schools; the United States as intervening plaintiff
Indexed Lawyer Organizations NAACP Legal Defense Fund
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Attorneys fees
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1963 - 2010
Case Closing Year 2010
Case Ongoing No
Docket(s)
1:72-cv-01327-SHM-egb (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/26/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint [ECF# 431]
SD-TN-0002-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/08/1963
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 450] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/19/1963
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Order] (221 F.Supp. 968) (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0003.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/12/1963
Source: Westlaw
Order on Plaintiffs' Motion Under Rule 60 [ECF# 467] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/09/1963
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Order] (229 F.Supp. 580) (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0004.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/21/1964
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (244 F.Supp. 353) (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0005.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/30/1965
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (269 F.Supp. 758) (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0011.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/02/1965
Source: Westlaw
Order [ECF# 494] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0022.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/09/1965
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/11/1965
Source: Westlaw
Order (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0023.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/16/1966
Source: Westlaw
Memorandum Decision and Order (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0024.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/22/1966
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (380 F.2d 955)
SD-TN-0002-0006.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/21/1967
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (391 U.S. 450)
SD-TN-0002-0007.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 05/27/1968
Source: Westlaw
Order (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0025.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/13/1968
Source: Westlaw
Order [ECF# 541] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0026.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/28/1969
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0027.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/12/1970
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (427 F.2d 1005)
SD-TN-0002-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/19/1970
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (439 F.2d 804)
SD-TN-0002-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 03/15/1971
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (453 F.2d 259)
SD-TN-0002-0009.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 01/07/1972
Source: Westlaw
Memorandum of the United States in Support of its Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusion of Law (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0038.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/30/1972
Source: Papers of Jack Ruzicho
Memorandum in Support and Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0037.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/18/1972
Source: Papers of Jack Ruzicho
Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law and Memorandum of the United States in Support of Its Proposed Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law
SD-TN-0002-0036.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/13/1973
Source: Papers of Jack Ruzicho
Memorandum Opinion [ECF# 642] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0028.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/17/1973
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0029.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/28/1973
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (505 F.2d 105)
SD-TN-0002-0010.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/22/1974
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (505 F.2d 109)
SD-TN-0002-0013.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/22/1974
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (557 F.2d 1225)
SD-TN-0002-0014.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/13/1977
Source: Westlaw
[Order] (583 F.2d 263)
SD-TN-0002-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/22/1978
Source: Westlaw
Stipulation [ECF# 237]
SD-TN-0002-0030.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/10/1989
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Consent Order [ECF# 238] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0031.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/13/1989
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 327] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0032.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/11/2000
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Denying Madison County, Tennessee's Motion to Intervene [ECF# 17] (2007 WL 1485267) (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0016.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 05/18/2007
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Motion for Declaration of Partial Unitary Status [ECF# 514] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0033.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/05/2009
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Motion for Declaration of Full Unitary Status and Dismissal [ECF# 723] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/24/2010
Source: Pro Publica
Order Granting Motion for Declaration of Full Unitary Status and Dismissal [ECF# 723] (2010 WL 3732015) (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0017.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 09/24/2010
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Motion for Declaration of Full Unitary Status and Dismissal [ECF# 723] (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0034.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/24/2010
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Judges Brennan, William Joseph Jr. (SCOTUS)
SD-TN-0002-0007
Brown, Bailey (W.D. Tenn., Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0003 | SD-TN-0002-0004 | SD-TN-0002-0005 | SD-TN-0002-0011 | SD-TN-0002-0019 | SD-TN-0002-0020 | SD-TN-0002-0021 | SD-TN-0002-0022 | SD-TN-0002-0023 | SD-TN-0002-0024
Bryant, Edward G. Court not on record [Magistrate]
SD-TN-0002-9000
Edwards, George Clifton Jr. (Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0008 | SD-TN-0002-0009 | SD-TN-0002-0010 | SD-TN-0002-0012 | SD-TN-0002-0013 | SD-TN-0002-0014 | SD-TN-0002-0015
Gibbons, Julia Smith (W.D. Tenn., Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0032
Mays, Samuel H. Jr. (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0001 | SD-TN-0002-0016 | SD-TN-0002-0017 | SD-TN-0002-0033 | SD-TN-0002-0034 | SD-TN-0002-9000
McRae, Robert Malcolm Jr. (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0025 | SD-TN-0002-0026 | SD-TN-0002-0027
O'Sullivan, Clifford Patrick (E.D. Mich., Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0006
Peck, John Weld II (S.D. Ohio, Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0006 | SD-TN-0002-0008 | SD-TN-0002-0009 | SD-TN-0002-0010 | SD-TN-0002-0012 | SD-TN-0002-0013 | SD-TN-0002-0014 | SD-TN-0002-0015
Phillips, Harry (Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0006 | SD-TN-0002-0008 | SD-TN-0002-0009 | SD-TN-0002-0010 | SD-TN-0002-0012 | SD-TN-0002-0013 | SD-TN-0002-0014 | SD-TN-0002-0015
Todd, James Dale (W.D. Tenn.)
SD-TN-0002-0031
Wellford, Harry Walker (W.D. Tenn., Sixth Circuit)
SD-TN-0002-0028 | SD-TN-0002-0029
Plaintiff's Lawyers Amer, Kevin R. (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-9000
Chachkin, Norman J. (New York)
SD-TN-0002-0032 | SD-TN-0002-9000
Dann, Mark (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-9000
Dinkins, Richard Hovey (Tennessee)
SD-TN-0002-0032
Fields, Richard (Tennessee)
SD-TN-0002-9000
Greenberg, Jack (New York)
SD-TN-0002-0018
Jones, Elaine R. (New York)
SD-TN-0002-0032
Kaminski, Gerald F. (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0036 | SD-TN-0002-0038
Kohrman, Daniel B. (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0032
Looby, Z. Alexander (Tennessee)
SD-TN-0002-0018
Mansukhani, Sunil H (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0032 | SD-TN-0002-9000
Maurer, Michael S. (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0032
Motley, Constance Baker (New York)
SD-TN-0002-0018
Nabrit, James M. III (New York)
SD-TN-0002-0018
Norton, Helen L. (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0032
Rogers, Laura Kym Davis (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-9000
Turner, James P. (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0030 | SD-TN-0002-0031 | SD-TN-0002-0031
Defendant's Lawyers Conder, Milton Dale (Tennessee)
SD-TN-0002-9000
Kizer, Jerry D. Jr. (Tennessee)
SD-TN-0002-0032 | SD-TN-0002-9000
Teel, Jerome C. Jr. (Tennessee)
SD-TN-0002-9000
Other Lawyers Ruzicho, Andrew [Jack] Jack (District of Columbia)
SD-TN-0002-0037 | SD-TN-0002-0038

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