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Case Name In re Directives to Yahoo Pursuant to Section 105B of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. [105B(g) 07-01] NS-DC-0008
Docket / Court 105B(g) 07-01 ( FISC )
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) National Security
Special Collection Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act -- All Matters
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act -- Foreign Targeting (702, 703, 704)
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act -- Internet Metadata
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Case Summary
In 2012, leaks by Edward Snowden revealed many details about NSA surveillance programs that had been going on for many years. In the aftermath of those leaks, the government declassified many previously secret details regarding these programs. Among the declassified documents were those in this ... read more >
In 2012, leaks by Edward Snowden revealed many details about NSA surveillance programs that had been going on for many years. In the aftermath of those leaks, the government declassified many previously secret details regarding these programs. Among the declassified documents were those in this case, in which the internet company Yahoo!, Inc. attempted to resist surveillance of some of its customers by the NSA, but lost in front of the FISA Court and the FISA Court of Review.

Beginning in 2007, the government issued directives to Yahoo ordering it to assist in warrantless surveillance of certain customers, pursuant to a now-expired set of amendments to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) and the Protect America Act of 2007 (PAA), which authorized the United States to direct communications service providers to assist in acquiring foreign intelligence when those acquisitions targeted third persons reasonably believed to be located outside the United States. Having received the directives, Yahoo challenged their legality before the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC). That court found the directives lawful and compelled obedience.

Yahoo appealed, petitioning for review before the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review (FISCR), and moved the FISC for a stay pending appeal. The FISC refused to grant the stay; Yahoo thus began compliance under threat of civil contempt. On August 22, 2008, in its second-ever decision, the FISCR affirmed the motion to compel. In re Directives Pursuant to Section 105B of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, 551 F.3d 1004 (FISA Ct. Rev. 2008). The FISCR issued an order on January 12, 2009, placing under seal all classified information in the matter. Because of that order, none of the documents in the matter were public.

On June 14, 2013, after the 2012 Snowden disclosures, Yahoo filed a motion seeking publication of the FISC's decisions and records. On June 17, 2013, FISC Judge Reggie B. Walton issued a scheduling order for the government's response and Yahoo's reply. On June 25, 2013, the government responded indicating that the public had an interest in disclosure of the information in the motion and the identity of the provider. On June 26, 2013, Judge Walton ordered that Yahoo's motion, response, and the court order of June 17, 2013, no longer be under seal. The government then informed Yahoo that its name and its counsels' identities were no longer classified and could be released.

Afterward, on July 9, 2013, Yahoo moved to disclose additional portions of the court's April 25, 2008 opinion and the parties' legal briefs leading to that opinion. On July 15, 2013, because the government had offered no objection to these additional disclosures, Judge Walton ordered the government to conduct a declassification review of the April 25, 2008 opinion and the legal briefs submitted by parties. The government was required to report by July 29, 2013, with estimated dates when it would complete the review.

In response, on July 29, 2013, the government proposed to conduct a declassification review of (1) the April 25, 2008 opinion by September 12, 2013; (2) the briefs and materials cited in the April 25 opinion by September 27, 2013; and (3) other briefs and materials on a rolling basis. The government's response included an appendix containing a list of documents and associated dates for declassification review. The government provided to the court the first and second portions of the records pursuant to the timeline. The portions were redacted and subject to publication upon the court's review.

On September 30, 2013, Yahoo requested permission to review the government's redacted submissions. Yahoo claimed that, through its involvement in this case, it still had access to many of the documents being redacted. Yahoo thus wanted an opportunity to review the government’s redactions so that Yahoo could object to the redactions, if it deemed objection appropriate. The court, however, never ruled on this motion. Instead, on October 21, 2013, the parties filed a joint motion to allow Yahoo prepublication access to the court documents after declassification by government and submission to the court for review.

On October 22, 2013, Judge Walton granted the joint motion for prepublication access and established a procedure for Yahoo to review and file any motions regarding the release of those documents. But the court issued a stay in reviewing any additional redactions in the meantime government because the FISCR was also engaged in some sort of declassification process. The court wanted to be able to have FISCR’s declassification process "inform [the court’s] examination of declassified materials on the same subject matter." Although the FISCR does not have a public docket, the FISCR’s declassification process resulted in substantial disclosures. On September 11, 2014, Yahoo released over 1,500 pages of documents, while noting in a statement that Yahoo was "still pushing for the FISC to release materials from the 2007-2008 case in the lower court."

The FISC's stay remained in effect for a little over a year. On October 24, 2014, Yahoo moved to lift the stay after the FISCR had completed its own declassification process. On November 5, 2014, FISC Judge Thomas F. Hogan granted the motion, lifting the stay and requiring the government to resume its redaction and declassification process. On November 18, 2014, the government provided the court with a proposed schedule for continued declassification review. The government, however, contended that it did not need to further review any documents FISCR had already examined. Yahoo, however, disagreed, and filed a response on December 18, 2014, arguing that FISCR had only reviewed already-redacted documents during its declassification review, and so the government should be required to conduct another declassification review of the unredacted documents. The court agreed with Yahoo and, on December 23, 2014, ordered the government to conduct a declassification review of the unredacted versions.

On January 7, 2015, the government filed a response in which it claimed that it had actually already conducted a review of the unredacted versions. The government estimated that it would be able to provide the newly redacted documents on January 30. The government met this deadline; on January 30, 2015, the government provided the court with the proposed redactions. On March 4, 2015, the government notified the FISC that it had found two additional documents that could be disclosed.

On February 5, 2016, Judge Hogan issued an order notifying the government that it had questions about the proposed redactions; the questions themselves, however, remain classified. On March 4, 2016, the government filed a response (which also remains classified), but apparently reconsidered the scope of the redactions proposed on January 30, 2015. On March 14, 2016, the court issued an order requiring the government provided new proposed redactions by April 11, 2016, and set forth a proposed schedule for Yahoo to respond to those redactions. Accordingly, on April 11, 2016, the government submitted the new redactions; Yahoo did not file any response. On April 27, 2016, Judge Hogan ordered that the redacted documents be unsealed.

On May 9, 2016, Yahoo released the unsealed documents along with a statement:
We believe significant value exists in making these documents available to the public to promote informed discussion about the relationship between privacy, due process and intelligence gathering. They also demonstrate the importance of hard-fought reforms to surveillance law, like the addition of a "special advocate" in the FISC, achieved with passage of the USA Freedom Act.
The unsealed documents from both the 2014 and 2016 disclosures can be found below.

Elizabeth Homan - 01/30/2014
Jessica Kincaid - 06/05/2014
John He - 07/19/2017


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Unreasonable search and seizure
Content of Injunction
Monitoring
Recordkeeping
Reporting
Warrant/order for search or seizure
General
Access to lawyers or judicial system
Confidentiality
Records Disclosure
Search policies
Terrorism/Post 9-11 issues
Plaintiff Type
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Causes of Action FISA Title I Warrant (Electronic Surveillance), 50 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1812
FISA Title VII targeting order (Sections 702, 703, 704), 50 U.S.C. 1881a, 1881b, 1881c
Plaintiff Description Plaintiff, a communications service provider (Yahoo!) whose identity was initially under seal, was directed by the United States to assist in acquiring foreign intelligence targeting the service provider's customers. In 2013, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court unsealed Yahoo!'s identity.
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Case Closing Year 2016
Case Ongoing No
Docket(s)
105B(g07-01) (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/28/2016
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
General Documents
Motion For Leave to File a Supplemental Reply Brief
NS-DC-0008-0072.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date:
FBI Standard Physical Search Minimization Procedures [Search of a US Person Agent of a Foreign Power]
NS-DC-0008-0044.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 01/20/1995
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Standard [FBI] Physical Search Minimization Procedures
NS-DC-0008-0049.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 01/20/1995
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
FBI Standard Minimization Procedures for Electronic Surveillance of a Non-US Person Agent of a Foreign Power
NS-DC-0008-0045.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/17/1997
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Standard Minimization Procedures for Electronic Surveillance of a United States Person Agent of a Foreign Power
NS-DC-0008-0048.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/17/1997
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Amendments to FBI Standard Minimization Procedures
NS-DC-0008-0046.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 09/26/2006
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Government’s Motion to Compel Compliance with Directives
NS-DC-0008-0023.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/21/2007
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Yahoo’s Memorandum in Opposition to Motion to Compel
NS-DC-0008-0024.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/21/2007
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Memorandum Opinion [Denying American Civil Liberties Union's Motion for Release of Court Records] (526 F.Supp.2d 484) (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 12/11/2007
Source: Westlaw
DoD Procedures Governing Activities that Affect US Persons
NS-DC-0008-0025.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/11/2007
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Establishing Procedures for Handling Classified Information (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0026.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/28/2007
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Directing the Filing of Affidavits (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0027.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/04/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Memorandum Opinion and Order, re DNI AG Certification (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0047.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/15/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Declaration of FBI Data Acquisition/Intercept Section
NS-DC-0008-0028.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/16/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Declaration of Associate General Counsel of Yahoo
NS-DC-0008-0029.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/22/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Declaration of Manager, Legal Department Compliance Team, Yahoo
NS-DC-0008-0030.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/23/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Directing Parties to Provide Supplemental Briefing on the Fourth Amendment (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0031.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/06/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Government’s Supplemental Brief on the Fourth Amendment
NS-DC-0008-0032.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/15/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Granting Motion to File Classified Appendix (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0033.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/28/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
DoD Procedures Governing Communications Metadata Analysis
NS-DC-0008-0041.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/14/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Authorizing Submission of Ex Parte Filing (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0034.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/17/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Memorandum Opinion and Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0035.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/25/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Compelling Compliance with Directives (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0053.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 04/25/2008
Annex to DoD Procedures Under Executive Order 12333
NS-DC-0008-0043.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/29/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Declaration of Matthew G. Olsen
NS-DC-0008-0037.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/08/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Government’s Motion for an Order of Civil Contempt
NS-DC-0008-0036.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/09/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order Denying Yahoo’s Motion for a Stay (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0038.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/09/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Declaration of J. Michael McConnell
NS-DC-0008-0042.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/09/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Yahoo's Compliance Report
NS-DC-0008-0039.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/14/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Brief of Appellant Yahoo!
NS-DC-0008-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/29/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Executive Order 12333, 46 Fed. Reg. 59,941
NS-DC-0008-0040.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/03/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Government Ex Parte Merits Brief
NS-DC-0008-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/05/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Reply Brief of Appellant Yahoo!
NS-DC-0008-0052.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 06/09/2008
Yahoo Rule 28J Letter
NS-DC-0008-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/13/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Proceedings
NS-DC-0008-0050.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/19/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Transcript of Proceedings Before the Honorable Bruce M. Seyla, Ralph K. Winter, Jr. and Morris S. Arnold
NS-DC-0008-0051.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 06/19/2008
Government Ex Parte Supplemental Brief
NS-DC-0008-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/26/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Reply By Yahoo! To Supplemental Briefing
NS-DC-0008-0071.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/30/2008
Government 28J Letter
NS-DC-0008-0020.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/10/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Government Second 28J Letter
NS-DC-0008-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/15/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Yahoo Response to Second Government 28J Letter
NS-DC-0008-0022.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/17/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
FISC-R Merits Opinion (551 F.3d 1004)
NS-DC-0008-0014.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/22/2008
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Provider's Unclassified Motion under FISC Rule 62 for Publication of this Court's Decision and Other Records
NS-DC-0008-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/14/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/17/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
United States Response to Yahoo's Motion Under FISC Rule 62 for Publication of This Court's Decision and Other Records
NS-DC-0008-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/25/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/26/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Reply in Support of Yahoo! Inc.'s Motion Under FISC Rule 62
NS-DC-0008-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/09/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/15/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0069.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/15/2013
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
United States Response to Court's July 15, 2013 Order
NS-DC-0008-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/29/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
United States' Second Response to the Court's July 15, 2013 order
NS-DC-0008-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/12/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
United States' Third Response to the Court's July 15, 2013 Order
NS-DC-0008-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/27/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Yahoo! Inc.'s Unclassified Motion under FISC Rule 62 to Allow Pre-Publication Review of Documents Produced in Response to This Court's July 15, 2013 Order
NS-DC-0008-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/30/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Motion for Stay of Proceedings Due to Lapse of Appropriations
NS-DC-0008-0067.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/04/2013
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/11/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Joint Motion to Provide Yahoo with Limited Pre-Publication Access to Court Documents
NS-DC-0008-0068.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/21/2013
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/22/2013
Source: Office of the Director of National Intelligence
Yahoo! Inc.'s Unclassified Motion to Lift the Stay and For a Scheduling Order
NS-DC-0008-0066.pdf | Detail
Date: 10/24/2014
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0065.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/05/2014
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
The United States' Response to the Court's November 5, 2014 Order
NS-DC-0008-0064.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/18/2014
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
The United States' Supplemental Response to the Court's November 5, 2014 Order
NS-DC-0008-0070.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/12/2014
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Yahoo! Inc's Response to the United States' Supplemental Response to the Court's November 5, 2014 Order
NS-DC-0008-0063.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/18/2014
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order Regarding Scope of Declassification Review (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0062.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/23/2014
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
The United States' Response to the Court's December 23, 2014 Order
NS-DC-0008-0060.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/07/2015
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
The United States' Supplemental Response to the Court's December 23, 2014 Order
NS-DC-0008-0061.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/30/2015
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Notice
NS-DC-0008-0059.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/04/2015
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Yahoo! Inc.'s Unclassified Motion For a Status Conference
NS-DC-0008-0057.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/05/2016
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order (2016 WL 6212316) (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0058.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 02/05/2016
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0056.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/14/2016
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
The United States' Response to the Court's March 14, 2016 Order
NS-DC-0008-0055.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/11/2016
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Order (2016 WL 8233915) (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0054.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 04/27/2016
Source: Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court
Judges Arnold, Morris Sheppard Court not on record
NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051
Bates, John D. (D.C. Circuit, FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0015
Hogan, Thomas Francis (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0054 | NS-DC-0008-0056 | NS-DC-0008-0058 | NS-DC-0008-0062 | NS-DC-0008-0065
Kollar-Kotelly, Colleen (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0047
Selya, Bruce Marshall (FISCR)
NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051
Walton, Reggie B. (FISC)
NS-DC-0008-0002 | NS-DC-0008-0004 | NS-DC-0008-0006 | NS-DC-0008-0012 | NS-DC-0008-0013 | NS-DC-0008-0026 | NS-DC-0008-0027 | NS-DC-0008-0031 | NS-DC-0008-0033 | NS-DC-0008-0034 | NS-DC-0008-0035 | NS-DC-0008-0038 | NS-DC-0008-0053 | NS-DC-0008-0069
Winter, Ralph K. Jr. (FISCR)
NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051
Defendant's Lawyers Carlin, John P. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0003 | NS-DC-0008-0007 | NS-DC-0008-0009 | NS-DC-0008-0010 | NS-DC-0008-0055 | NS-DC-0008-0059 | NS-DC-0008-0060 | NS-DC-0008-0061 | NS-DC-0008-0064 | NS-DC-0008-0067 | NS-DC-0008-0068 | NS-DC-0008-0070
Demers, John C. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0017 | NS-DC-0008-0019 | NS-DC-0008-0032 | NS-DC-0008-0036 | NS-DC-0008-0072
Eisenberg, John A. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0017 | NS-DC-0008-0019 | NS-DC-0008-0032 | NS-DC-0008-0072
Evans, Stuart J. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0055 | NS-DC-0008-0059 | NS-DC-0008-0060 | NS-DC-0008-0061 | NS-DC-0008-0064 | NS-DC-0008-0070
Filip, Mark R. (Illinois)
NS-DC-0008-0017
Fischbach, Jonathan (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0055 | NS-DC-0008-0059 | NS-DC-0008-0060 | NS-DC-0008-0061 | NS-DC-0008-0064 | NS-DC-0008-0070
Garre, Gregory G. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0019 | NS-DC-0008-0020 | NS-DC-0008-0021 | NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051 | NS-DC-0008-0072
Gauhar, Tashina (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0003 | NS-DC-0008-0007 | NS-DC-0008-0009 | NS-DC-0008-0010 | NS-DC-0008-0067 | NS-DC-0008-0068
Mukasey, Michael B. (New York)
NS-DC-0008-0017 | NS-DC-0008-0041
Olsen, Matthew G. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0017 | NS-DC-0008-0019 | NS-DC-0008-0023 | NS-DC-0008-0028 | NS-DC-0008-0032 | NS-DC-0008-0036 | NS-DC-0008-0037 | NS-DC-0008-0040 | NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051 | NS-DC-0008-0072
Patterson, Nicholas J. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0003 | NS-DC-0008-0007 | NS-DC-0008-0009 | NS-DC-0008-0010 | NS-DC-0008-0067 | NS-DC-0008-0068
Rowan, J. Patrick (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0017 | NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051
Sanz-Rexach, Gabriel (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0055 | NS-DC-0008-0059 | NS-DC-0008-0060 | NS-DC-0008-0061 | NS-DC-0008-0064 | NS-DC-0008-0070
Smith, Jeffrey Michael (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0003 | NS-DC-0008-0007 | NS-DC-0008-0009 | NS-DC-0008-0010 | NS-DC-0008-0067 | NS-DC-0008-0068
Wiegmann, J. Bradford (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0003 | NS-DC-0008-0007 | NS-DC-0008-0009 | NS-DC-0008-0010 | NS-DC-0008-0067 | NS-DC-0008-0068
Other Lawyers Reno, Janet (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0048 | NS-DC-0008-0049
Sommer, Jacob A. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0001 | NS-DC-0008-0005 | NS-DC-0008-0011 | NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0057 | NS-DC-0008-0063 | NS-DC-0008-0066 | NS-DC-0008-0068
Zwillinger, Marc J. (District of Columbia)
NS-DC-0008-0001 | NS-DC-0008-0005 | NS-DC-0008-0011 | NS-DC-0008-0016 | NS-DC-0008-0018 | NS-DC-0008-0022 | NS-DC-0008-0024 | NS-DC-0008-0039 | NS-DC-0008-0050 | NS-DC-0008-0051 | NS-DC-0008-0052 | NS-DC-0008-0057 | NS-DC-0008-0063 | NS-DC-0008-0066 | NS-DC-0008-0068 | NS-DC-0008-0071

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