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Case Name In re Black Farmers' Discrimination Litigation FH-DC-0007
Docket / Court 08-mc-0511 ( D.D.C. )
Additional Docket(s) C.A. No. 08-0882  [ 08-882 ]
C.A. No. 08-0901  [ 08-901 ]
No. 08-0919  [ 08-919 ]
C.A. No. 08-00940  [ 08-940 ]
No. 08-00962  [ 08-962 ]
08-1062  [ 08-1062 ]
No. 08-1070  [ 08-1070 ]
No. 08-1188  [ 08-1188 ]
No. 08-1381  [ 08-1381 ]
No. 08-1513  [ 08-1513 ]
No. 08-2220  [ 08-2220 ]
No. 09-1019  [ 09-1019 ]
No. 09-1318  [ 09-1318 ]
No. 09-1323  [ 09-1323 ]
No. 09-1401  [ 09-1401 ]
No. 09-1422  [ 09-1422 ]
No. 09-1507  [ 09-1507 ]
No. 10-0465  [ 10-465 ]
No. 10-0737  [ 10-737 ]
No. 10-0801  [ 10-801 ]
No. 10-1053  [ 10-1053 ]
No. 10-0839  [ 10-839 ]
No. 10-1026  [ 10-1026 ]
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) Fair Housing/Lending/Insurance
Public Benefits / Government Services
Attorney Organization Relman, Dane & Colfax
Case Summary
On April 14, 1999, a consent decree was approved in Pigford v. Glickman (FH-DC-0006 in this Clearinghouse; see "related cases", below), involving a class of thousands of African American farmers who had sued the U.S. Department of Agriculture over racially discriminatory farm loan denials. 18 ... read more >
On April 14, 1999, a consent decree was approved in Pigford v. Glickman (FH-DC-0006 in this Clearinghouse; see "related cases", below), involving a class of thousands of African American farmers who had sued the U.S. Department of Agriculture over racially discriminatory farm loan denials. 185 F.R.D. 82 (D.D.C. 1999). In the settlement, two "claim tracks" were created: Track A, which had a lower standard of proof of discrimination (paying up to $50,000 for credit claims and $3,000 for non-credit claims), and Track B, which required a preponderance of the evidence (paying up to $250,000). The deadline for claims under this settlement was October 12, 1999. The Consent Decree allowed claimants who could show "extraordinary circumstances" for missing the October 12 deadline to file at a later date, until the final deadline of September 15, 2000. In total 61,000 claims were brought late, but fewer than 3,000 were adjudicated based on the merits.

On May 22, 2008, the Food, Conservation and Energy Act (a/k/a "2008 Farm Bill") was enacted, providing claimants a right to pursue discrimination claims if they had petitioned to participate but did not get their petitions considered on the merits because they were filed late. Pub. L. 110-234, 122 Stat. 923. Section 14012 of the bill created a completely new cause of action for these "late-filers," which could be brought in the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia. Subsequently, a large number of suits were filed under this new cause of action.

On August 8, 2008, Judge Paul L. Friedman of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia consolidated 17 cases resulting from Section 14012 that were currently pending in the district court: Agee v. Schafer (C.A.. No. 08-0882); Kimbrough v. Schafer (08-0901); Adams v. Schafer (08-0919); National Black Farmers Association v. Schafer (08-0940); Bennet v. Schafer (08-0962); McKinney v. Schafer (08-1062); Bolton v. Schafer (08-1070); Copland v. Vilsack (08-1188); Hampton v. Schafer (08-1381); Robinson v. Schafer (08-1513); James v. Schafer (08-2220); Beckley v. Vilsack (09-1019); Sanders v. Vilsack (09-1318); Russell v. Vilsack (09-1323); Bridgeforth v. Vilsack (09-1401); Allen v. Vilsack (09-1422); and Anderson v. Vilsack (09-1507). All together, these matters were captioned In re Black Farmers' Litigation, and given the docket number 08-mc-0511.

On November 14, 2008, the plaintiffs filed an amended complaint, including a request to certify a putative class of "All individuals: (1) who submitted late-filing requests under section 5(g) of the Pigford v. Glickman Consent Decree on or after October 13, 1999, and on or before June 18, 2008; but (2) who have not obtained a determination on the merits of their discrimination complaints, as defined by Section 1(h) of the Consent Decree."

On February 18, 2010, the parties came to a settlement agreement, which was submitted to the court. The settlement agreement created a class with the description language from the amended complaint (see above). This settlement maintained the two tracks of claims, established "neutrals" who were assigned to adjudicate the settlement claims, and created an ombudsman position, which was to act as the liaison between the claimants and the court. In return for the re-evaluation of late-filing claims, the plaintiffs agreed to move for dismissal of all pending consolidated cases with prejudice, to be effective upon the court's final approval. After the execution of the initial form of the settlement agreement, six additional complaints were filed and consolidated with this case: Edwards v. Vilsack (10-0456); Latham v. Vilsack (10-0737); Andrews v. Vilsack (10-0801); Sanders v. Vilsack (10-1053); Johnson v. Vilsack (10-0839); and Abney v. Vilsack (10-1026).

On December 8, 2010, Congress passed the "Claims Resolution Act," which appropriated $1.15 billion to fund this settlement agreement. Pub. L. No. 111-291, §201, 124 Stat. 3064, 3070 (2010). On February 11, 2011, Judge Friedman approved this settlement agreement. The order fixed the claim period between November 14, 2011, and May 11, 2012.

On March 30, 2011, the plaintiffs filed an unopposed motion for certification of the settlement class, described above. Judge Friedman approved certified the settlement class on May 13, 2011. On October 27, 2011, Judge Friedman approved the final proposed class settlement. 820 F. Supp. 2d 78 (D.D.C. 2011).

On November 15, 2011, one of the plaintiffs in the consolidated case, the Black Farmers and Agriculturalist Association (BFAA), moved for reconsideration of the settlement approval. The BFAA argued that the settlement should not have been approved because it unfairly prevented plaintiffs from pursuing substantive relief under the Section 741 of the 1999 Farm Bill. This motion was denied on January 13, 2012, by Judge Friedman. 2012 WL 8007271 (D.D.C. 2012). The BFAA and another class member, Charlie Latham, appealed this denial to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. On July 25, 2012, the Court of Appeals, in a per curiam order, denied the reconsideration appeal for the BFAA because the BFAA is not an "individual" under the class settlement, thereby not a part of the settlement. In the same order, the Court of Appeals also denied Latham's appeal because he had already received a determination on his Pigford claim. On February 26, 2013, the Supreme Court of the United States denied BFAA and Latham's petition for a writ of certiorari.

On February 6, 2012, Stephen Carpenter was appointed the independent ombudsman per the settlement agreement. 842 F. Supp. 2d 190 (D.D.C. 2012).

On May 11, 2012, the claim process ended. The parties in this case moved on August 17, 2012 to alter the settlement to provide relief for claimants who missed the deadline for certain circumstances. On September 14, 2012, Judge Friedman approved this alteration of the settlement, which allowed claimants who made a claim before the May 11 deadline and made a prima facie showing of class membership but was not sent a claim form before May 1, 2012 to have their claim considered "timely" if resubmitted within 30 days of the approved alteration.

On May 24, 2013, the plaintiff filed a motion to further modify the settlement agreement to allow certain claims previously denied as “incomplete” to be considered for adjudication on the merits. There are potentially 384 claims under the subject of this motion. On June 21, 2013, Judge Friedman denied this motion.

Judge Friedman granted many more motions to amend the settlement agreement on the following dates: August 27, 2013, April 7, 2014, September 17, 2014, August 31, 2016, March 28, 2017.

The court is still reviewing invoices submitted by the Ombudsman’s office. The case is ongoing.

Dan Osher - 06/19/2013
Sichun Liu - 05/25/2019


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Implement complaint/dispute resolution process
Monitor/Master
Defendant-type
Hospital/Health Department
Discrimination-area
Lending
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Disparate Treatment
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Race
Black
Defendant(s) U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plaintiff Description All individuals: (1) who submitted late-filing requests under section 5(g) of the Pigford v. Glickman Consent Decree on or after October 13, 1999, and on or before June 18, 2008; but (2) who have not obtained a determination on the merits of their discrimination complaints, as defined by Section 1(h) of the Consent Decree.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations Relman, Dane & Colfax
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 2011 - 2012
Filing Year 2008
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing FH-DC-0006 : Pigford v. Glickman (D.D.C.)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  The Pigford Cases: USDA Settlement of Discrimination Suits by Black Farmers
Date: Aug. 15, 2012
By: Tadlock Cowen & Jody Feder (Congressional Research Service)
Citation: (Congressional Research Service, Aug. 15, 2012)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:08-mc-511 (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/08/2019
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Memorandum Opinion and Order [Denying Certain Plaintiffs' Motion for a Temporary Restraining Order] [ECF# 160] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/11/2001
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Consolidating Cases for All Purposes] [ECF# 1] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/08/2008
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order (587 F.Supp.2d 23) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 11/07/2008
Source: Westlaw
Second Amended Complaint for Determination on the Merits and Damages Pursuant to § 14012 of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 [ECF# 24]
FH-DC-0007-0002.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/10/2008
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Granting Defendant's Motion for Relief] [ECF# 112] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/12/2009
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
In re Black Farmers' Discrimination Litigation - Motion for Preliminary Approval of Settlement, Certification of a Rule 23(b)(1)(B) Settlement Class, and for other purposes [Settlement Attached] [ECF# 161]
FH-DC-0007-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 03/30/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Class Action Complaint to Determine Merits and Damages Pursuant to § 14012 of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008, as Amended [ECF# 163]
FH-DC-0007-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/01/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
In re Black Farmers' Discrimination Litigation - Notice of Amendment of Exhibits to Motion for Prelminary Approval of Settlement, Certification of a Rule 23(b)(1)(B) Settlement Class, and for Other Purposes [ECF# 170]
FH-DC-0007-0006.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/13/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
In re Black Farmers Discrimination Litigation - Settlement Agreement [ECF# 170-2]
FH-DC-0007-0018.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 05/13/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Preliminary Approval of Settlement Agreement, Certifying a Rule 23(b)(1)(B) Settlement Class, and for Other Purposes [ECF# 172] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/13/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order Regarding Fairness Hearing [ECF# 197] (806 F.Supp.2d 138) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/26/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order and Opinon [ECF# 231] (820 F.Supp.2d 78) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0016.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/27/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion [ECF# 232] (856 F.Supp.2d 1) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0023.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 10/27/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Unopposed Second Motion for Approval of Certain Interim Settlement Implementation Costs and Disbursal of Funds for the Payment of Such Costs and Points and Authorities in Support Thereof and Proposed Order [ECF# 234] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0024.pdf | Detail
Date: 11/11/2011
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order [ECF# 259] (2012 WL 8007271) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0020.pdf | WESTLAW | External Link | Detail
Date: 01/13/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order of Reference: Appointment of Ombudsman (842 F.Supp.2d 190) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0013.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/06/2012
Source: Westlaw
Memorandum Opinion and Order [Denying BFAA's Motion for Reconsideration] (2012 WL 440719) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0014.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 02/10/2012
Source: Westlaw
Memorandum Opinion and Order [Denying Motion to Intervene] [ECF# 298] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/11/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [USCA Order Granting Motion to Dismiss Consolidated Appeals] [Ct. of App. ECF# 299] (2012 WL 10236550)
FH-DC-0007-0010.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 07/25/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Settlement Order [ECF# 304] (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/14/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum of Law in Support of Class Counsel's Updated Motion For Award Of Attorneys’ Fees And Expenses [ECF# 306-1]
FH-DC-0007-0021.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/24/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 366] (950 F.Supp.2d 196) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0026.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/21/2013
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinin [ECF# 370] (953 F.Supp.2d 82) (D.D.C.)
FH-DC-0007-0027.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 07/11/2013
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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