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Case Name Stinson v. City of New York PN-NY-0012
Docket / Court 10-cv-04228 ( S.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Policing
Case Summary
On May 25, 2010, the plaintiffs -- individuals who were allegedly issued summonses without probable cause by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) -- filed this putative class action complaint in the United States Court for the Southern District of New York, against the City of New York under 4 ... read more >
On May 25, 2010, the plaintiffs -- individuals who were allegedly issued summonses without probable cause by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) -- filed this putative class action complaint in the United States Court for the Southern District of New York, against the City of New York under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel, sought monetary, injunctive, and declaratory relief, claiming violations of their First and Fourth Amendment rights. Specifically, the plaintiffs claimed that an unwritten 'summons quota' drove NYPD officers to issue summonses to and arrest individuals without probable cause, and in violation of the federal and state constitutions.

The complaint explained that in 1994, the NYPD instituted the COMPSTAT system, which records the statistics of arrests by type and the amount of summonses issued. Summonses are tickets written by police officers in lieu of arrest for a crime that directs the recipient of the summons to appear in court to face charges. Marijuana violations, disorderly conduct, and obstruction of governmental administration (OGA) are crimes for which summonses are typically issued. The plaintiffs alleged that since the institution of the COMPSTAT system, the number of summonses issued had increased by 500%, and that more than half (50.5%) of these charges are dismissed later on.

The plaintiffs alleged that the NYPD employed an illegal quota system for summonses, arrests, and quality-of-life violations. An officer's ability to meet quotas, plaintiffs claimed, was linked to officer promotion and demotion. This scheme was found by an arbitrator to be illegal under New York labor law.

As alleged by the plaintiffs, as part of an effort to meet the quota system NYPD Precinct commanders ordered officers to issue summonses in cases in which there was no probable cause of a crime being committed. They introduced tape recordings of two precinct commanders issuing orders for officers to issue summonses and 'articulate' violations of the law after-the-fact. The plaintiffs further alleged that this policy was disproportionately enforced in minority communities in Brooklyn, the Bronx and Queens. As a result, they have been falsely arrested and denied their right to peaceably assemble in their own communities.

On April 23, 2012, after hearing the parties on the matter of class certification, the court (Judge Robert W. Sweet) issued an unpublished opinion and order certifying the class as "includ[ing] individuals who were issued summonses that were later dismissed upon a judicial finding of facial insufficiency and who were ticketed without probable cause." The defendants filed a motion for reconsideration on the issue of class certification, but the motion was denied on July 19, 2012.

For the next several years, the parties engaged in discovery and litigated many issues regarding access to evidence during discovery. One notable discovery debate concerned removing the statutory seal on the records of individuals whose criminal court summonses were dismissed for factual insufficiency for the relevant time period. On February 24, 2016, the court (Judge Sweet) issued an opinion granting in part and denying in part defendants’ second motion to remove the statutory seal, concluding that unsealing the records for the purpose of aggregating statistics and discerning patterns is permissible, but doing so to identify officers who issued disputed summonses so that they can be called at trial is not. 2016 WL 817445. On April 1, 2016, the court (Judge Sweet) issued an order detailing the summons information to be provided and that which was to be withheld.

On January 23, 2017, the plaintiffs submitted an executed stipulation of settlement and a proposed preliminary approval order. On January 24, 2017, the court (Judge Sweet) issued an order granting preliminary approval of the proposed settlement and notice plan, and appointing a settlement claims administrator.

The parties agreed to settlement benefits of up to seventy-five million dollars, with up to $56,500,000 to be used to fund settlement payments to individual class members, service awards to the named class representatives, and costs of notice and settlement administration, and an additional $18,500,000 to pay attorneys’ fees and costs.

As is detailed in the settlement, the NYPD has made changes to its policies, practices, and procedures related to criminal summonses, and will continue to make additional changes. The changes address the use of quotas, numerical measurements of performance, and other matters that have been the subject of the class’ injunctive relief claims in this case, including: signing into law the Quota Bill to prohibit discrimination against an employee for the failure to meet quotas; publishing Legal Bureau Bulletin concerning the Quota Bill; revising Patrol Guide Section 205-38 to reiterate the retaliating against service members for providing information regarding misconduct and corruption will not be tolerated; developing new Patrol Guide procedures and updating training and reference materials; announcing the “Justice Reboot” initiative; signing the Criminal Justice Reform Act (singed by Mayor de Blasio); voluntarily posting certain summons data on the NYPD website; and agreeing to make a confidential presentation to counsel for the class regarding changes to the performance evaluation system.

The NYPD agreed to present additional pilots and ongoing projects. Such pilots and projects include: making reasonable efforts to ensure that the NYPD sends a department-wide email regarding quota policy, disciplinary action, and retaliation; investigating allegations regarding quotas, numeric performance goals, and misconduct; conducting such investigations by a designated parent command Investigations Unit; making reasonable efforts to conduct targeted internal review of training materials and to ensure compliance with the Quota Bill; and making reasonable efforts to make changes to its Patrol Guide and conduct training relating to the distribution of “Contact Cards.”

On April 14, 2017, the parties jointly moved for final approval of the class action settlement, which the court granted on April 18, 2017. On June 19, 2017, the court entered final judgment in this case, approving the settlement agreement. The judgment, pursuant to the settlement agreement, required the defendants to pay settlement benefits in the amount of $75,000,000 and attorneys’ fees in the amount of $18,500,000. The court retained jurisdiction to enforce the agreement. As of July 11, 2018, the case is ongoing for compliance purposes.

Blase Kearney - 06/19/2012
Erin Pamukcu - 02/15/2016
Julie Singer - 03/09/2017
Jake Parker - 07/11/2018


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Freedom of speech/association
Unreasonable search and seizure
Content of Injunction
Monitoring
Other requirements regarding hiring, promotion, retention
Reporting
Training
Defendant-type
Law-enforcement
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Failure to supervise
False arrest
Over/Unlawful Detention
Pattern or Practice
Racial profiling
Record-keeping
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Race
Race, unspecified
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) City of New York
Plaintiff Description Individuals arrested by the NYPD without probable cause
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Damages
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 2017 - n/a
Filing Year 2010
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
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  New York City to Pay Up to $75 Million Over Dismissed Summonses
New York Times
Date: Jan. 23, 2017
By: Benjamin Weiser (New York Times)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
10-cv-04228 (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/11/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Class Action Complaint Jury Trial Demanded [ECF# 1]
PN-NY-0012-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/25/2010
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Class Action Complaint [ECF# 8]
PN-NY-0012-0001.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/31/2010
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion [ECF# 34] (282 F.R.D. 360) (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0002.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 04/23/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion [ECF# 45] (2012 WL 2952840) (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0004.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 07/19/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Mandate [Ct. of App. ECF# 47]
PN-NY-0012-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 12/12/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion [ECF# 284] (2016 WL 817445) (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0006.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 02/24/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 297] (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/01/2016
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Settlement Agreement [ECF# 319]
PN-NY-0012-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/23/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Proposed Stipulation of Settlement [ECF# 319 Exhibit A]
PN-NY-0012-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/23/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Preliminary Approval of Proposed Settlement, Approving Proposed Notice Plan, and Appointing Settlement Claims Administrator [ECF# 320] (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/24/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [ECF# 329] (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0011.pdf | Detail
Date: 04/18/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion [ECF# 338] (256 F.Supp.3d 283) (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/12/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Final Order and Judgment of Approval of Class Action Settlement [ECF# 343] (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 06/19/2017
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Judges Sweet, Robert Workman (S.D.N.Y.)
PN-NY-0012-0002 | PN-NY-0012-0004 | PN-NY-0012-0005 | PN-NY-0012-0006 | PN-NY-0012-0007 | PN-NY-0012-0010 | PN-NY-0012-0011 | PN-NY-0012-0012 | PN-NY-0012-0013 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Plaintiff's Lawyers Bishop, Jennifer Deanne (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Cohen, Gerald M. (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0001 | PN-NY-0012-0003 | PN-NY-0012-0008 | PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Cook, Christopher Thomas (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Fitch, Joshua Paul (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0001 | PN-NY-0012-0003 | PN-NY-0012-0008 | PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Gildin, Benjamin Joseph (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Janus, Kevin Antoni (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Lingard, David (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Neuwirth, Stephen Randall (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0008 | PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Norinsberg, Jon Louis (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0001 | PN-NY-0012-0003 | PN-NY-0012-0008 | PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Olson, Steig (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Sutton, Elinor Catherine (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0008 | PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Beck, Curt Peter (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Davis, Nicholas Shea (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Friedman, Bryce Leigh (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
McLaren, Joanne Maureen (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Mettham, Suzanna Publicker (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Passeser, Daniel Louis (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Richardson, Lisa Marie (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Seligman, Rachel Amy (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Silverberg, Steven Mark (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Smith, Qiana Charmaine (New York)
PN-NY-0012-0009 | PN-NY-0012-9000
Weinstein, Sheila (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Other Lawyers Gilbert, Michael J. (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
Kurtz, Lauren (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000
McDonald, Edward A. (New York)
PN-NY-0012-9000

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