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Case Name Hollingsworth v. Perry PB-CA-0029
Docket / Court 3:09-cv-02292-VRW ( N.D. Cal. )
Additional Docket(s) 12-00144  [ 12-144 ]
State/Territory California
Case Type(s) Public Benefits / Government Services
Special Collection Same-Sex Marriage
Attorney Organization ACLU of Northern California
Case Summary
On May 22, 2009, two same-sex couples who had been denied marriage licenses in California filed a lawsuit under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 against the State of California in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco Division. The plaintiffs, represented by private ... read more >
On May 22, 2009, two same-sex couples who had been denied marriage licenses in California filed a lawsuit under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 against the State of California in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco Division. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel, asked the court for declaratory and injunctive relief, alleging a Fourteenth Amendment violation. Specifically, the plaintiffs claimed that California, by amending its constitution in 2008 to once again limit marriage to opposite-sex couples, had violated the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.

For a short while, same-sex marriage had been legal in California. In May 2008, the California Supreme Court held that state statutes limiting marriage to opposite-sex applicants violated the California Constitution, In re Marriage Cases, 183 P.3d 384 (Cal. 2008) (PB-CA-0001, in this collection) and for several months after that same-sex couples had been able to marry. In November 2008, however, California's electorate adopted Proposition 8, a constitutional amendment that reinstated the opposite-sex limitation on marriage. Several lawsuits were filed to challenge the validity of the amendment under various state constitutional provisions, but on May 26, 2009, the California Supreme Court held that while same-sex marriage contracted before its passage remained valid, Proposition 8 had been lawfully enacted. Strauss v. Horton, 207 P.3d 48 (Cal. 2009).

This case was filed three days prior to the Strauss decision. On July 2, 2009, the City and County of San Francisco moved to intervene, and on August 19, the District Court (Judge Vaughn R. Walker) allowed their intervention, albeit in a limited capacity. Because the governor and attorney general of California refused to defend Proposition 8, its official proponents moved to intervene, and their motion was also granted.

On August 4, 2010, the Court (Judge Walker) held in favor of the plaintiffs, overturning Proposition 8 as a violation of the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. Perry v. Schwarzenegger, 704 F. Supp. 2d 921 (N.D. Cal. 2010). It found that California had no rational basis for denying marriage licenses to same-sex couples and granted the plaintiffs' request for a permanent injunction barring enforcement of Proposition 8.

On the day the District Court's ruling came down, the defendant-interveners appealed it to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, and on August 12 they moved for a stay of the District Court's injunction. The Court of Appeals granted their motion on August 16.

On February 7, 2012, a three-judge Ninth Circuit panel ruled 2-1 in favor of the plaintiffs, declaring Proposition 8 unconstitutional. Perry v. Brown, 671 F.3d 1052 (9th Cir. 2012). The Court (Judge Stephen Reinhardt) found that it did not need to consider the rationale of the District Court, deciding instead on a narrower ground specific to the Californian context. Drawing heavily on the Supreme Court's language and reasoning in Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996), the Court held that because California had already offered same-sex couples the right to marry, and because it still offered them a status identical in all but name, Proposition 8 did nothing more than inflict dignitary harm on same-sex couples and thus had no rational basis.

On February 21, 2012, the defendant-interveners requested en banc review of the panel's decision by the entire Ninth Circuit, but their request was denied on June 5, leaving them ninety days to file a petition for writ of certiorari in the Supreme Court. Injunctive relief has been stayed pending appeal.

On December 7, 2012, the Supreme Court granted certiorari, agreeing to review the case. The court ordered briefing on two questions on review: (1) whether the Equal Protection Clause makes unconstitutional California's definition of marriage as available only to different sex couples, and (2) whether the backers of Proposition 8 have standing to appeal the 9th Circuit decision striking it down.

On June 26, 2013, in an opinion by Chief Justice Roberts (joined by Justices Scalia, Ginsburg, Breyer, and Kagan), the Supreme Court found that nobody with standing to appeal had, in fact, appealed the district court ruling, and accordingly vacated that decision. This left in place the district court's decision striking Prop 8 down -- so same-sex marriage is legal is California.

Christopher Schad - 12/07/2012
Margo Schlanger - 06/26/2013


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief granted
Defendant-type
Hospital/Health Department
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
Sexual orientatation
General
Gay/lesbian/transgender
Government Services (specify)
Marriage
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) Proposition 8 Official Proponents
State of California (Intervenors: Official Backers of Proposition 8)
The State of California
Plaintiff Description Plaintiffs are same-sex couples seeking the freedom to marry in the state of California.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU of Northern California
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Filing Year 2009
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing PB-CA-0040 : Hollingsworth v. O'Connell (State Court)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  Dennis Hollingsworth, et al., Petitioners v. Kristin M. Perry, et al. Docket No. 12-144
ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Date: Apr. 13, 2013
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
12-144 (U.S. Supreme Court)
PB-CA-0029-9001.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/28/2013
Source: Supreme Court website
3:09−cv−02292 (N.D. Cal.)
PB-CA-0029-9000.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/03/2013
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint for Declaratory, Injunctive, or Other Relief [ECF# 1-1]
PB-CA-0029-0003.pdf | Detail
Date: 05/22/2009
Source: District Court
Make Change, Not Lawsuits
PB-CA-0029-0023.pdf | External Link | Detail
Date: 05/27/2009
[City and County of San Francisco's] Complaint in Intervention for Declaratory, Injunctive or Other Relief [ECF# 161]
PB-CA-0029-0004.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/20/2009
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[District Court] Order [Enjoining Enforcement of Proposition 8] (704 F.Supp.2d 921) (N.D. Cal.)
PB-CA-0029-0002.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 08/04/2010
Source: District Court
[Ninth Circuit] Opinion [Affirming the District Court's Judgment] (671 F.3d 1052)
PB-CA-0029-0001.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 02/07/2012
Source: Westlaw
USCA Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 840] (681 F.3d 1065)
PB-CA-0029-0020.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/05/2012
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Defendant-Intervenors'] Petition for Writ of Certiorari
PB-CA-0029-0005.pdf | Detail
Date: 07/30/2012
Source: Supreme Court website
[Plaintiffs'] Brief in Opposition [to Defendant-Intervenors' Petition for Writ of Certiorari]
PB-CA-0029-0007.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/24/2012
City and County of San Francisco's Brief in Opposition [to Defendant-Intervenors' Petition for Writ of Certiorari]
PB-CA-0029-0008.pdf | Detail
Date: 08/24/2012
Reply Brief for [Defendant-Intervenors in Support of Their Petition for Writ of Certiorari]
PB-CA-0029-0009.pdf | Detail
Date: 09/04/2012
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Amicus Brief of the State of Michigan in Support of [Defendant-Intervenors]
PB-CA-0029-0013.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/02/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief [Addressing the Merits] of [Defendant-Intervenors]
PB-CA-0029-0010.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/22/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief Addressing the Merits of [Nineteen States] as Amici Curiae In Support of [Defendant-Intervenors]
PB-CA-0029-0012.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/29/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief Amicus Curiae of United States Conference of Catholic Bishops in Support of [Defendant-Intervenors] and Supporting Reversal
PB-CA-0029-0014.pdf | Detail
Date: 01/29/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief for Repsondents [Plaintiffs Perry et al.] [on the Merits]
PB-CA-0029-0018.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/21/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief of Respondent City and County of San Francisco [on the Merits]
PB-CA-0029-0019.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/21/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief for Amici Curiae Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, Bar Associations and Public Interest and Legal Service Organization in Support of [Plaintiffs]
PB-CA-0029-0016.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/28/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Hollingsworth v. Perry - Brief for the United States as Amicus Curiae Supporting Respondents
PB-CA-0029-0017.pdf | Detail
Date: 02/28/2013
Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
[Supreme Court Opinions] (133 S.Ct. 2652)
PB-CA-0029-0021.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Date: 06/26/2013
Source: Supreme Court website
Order [dissolving stay] (725 F.3d 968)
PB-CA-0029-0022.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Date: 06/28/2013
Source: Westlaw
show all people docs
Judges Hawkins, Michael Daly (Ninth Circuit) show/hide docs
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Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (Ninth Circuit, SCOTUS) show/hide docs
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Reinhardt, Stephen Roy (Ninth Circuit) show/hide docs
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Roberts, John Glover Jr. (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS) show/hide docs
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Smith, Norman Randy (Ninth Circuit) show/hide docs
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Spero, Joseph C. (N.D. Cal.) [Magistrate] show/hide docs
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Walker, Vaughn R. (N.D. Cal.) show/hide docs
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Ware, James (N.D. Cal.) show/hide docs
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Plaintiff's Lawyers Baxter, Rosanne C. (New York) show/hide docs
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Borelli, Tara Lynn (California) show/hide docs
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Boutrous, Theodore J. Jr. (California) show/hide docs
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Goldman, Jeremy Michael (California) show/hide docs
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LiMandri, Charles Salvatore (California) show/hide docs
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Lipshutz, Joshua S. (California) show/hide docs
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Minter, Shannon (California) show/hide docs
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Monagas, Enrique Antonio (California) show/hide docs
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Olson, Theodore B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Piepmeier, Sarah Elizabeth (California) show/hide docs
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Pizer, Jennifer Carol (California) show/hide docs
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Schiller, Josh (New York) show/hide docs
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Stoll, Christopher (California) show/hide docs
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Turner, Ilona Margaret (California) show/hide docs
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Uno, Theodore Hideyuki (California) show/hide docs
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Defendant's Lawyers Burns, Gordon Bruce (California) show/hide docs
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Bursch [Monk], Jennifer Lynn (California) show/hide docs
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Campbell, James A. (Arizona) show/hide docs
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Chandler, Timothy D. (California) show/hide docs
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Cooper, Charles Justin (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Kirk, Michael W. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Kolm, Claude Franklin (California) show/hide docs
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Lindevaldsen, Rena M. (Virginia) show/hide docs
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Lorence, Jordan W. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Martinez, Manuel Francisco (California) show/hide docs
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McAlister, Mary Elizabeth (Virginia) show/hide docs
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Mennemeier, Kenneth C. (California) show/hide docs
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Monk, Jennifer Lynn (California) show/hide docs
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Nielson, Howard C. Jr. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Nimocks, Austin R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Pachter, Tamar (California) show/hide docs
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Patterson, Peter A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Powell, Daniel J (California) show/hide docs
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Pugno, Andrew Perry (California) show/hide docs
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Raum, Brian W. (Arizona) show/hide docs
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Tyler, Robert H. (California) show/hide docs
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Whitehurst, Judy W. (California) show/hide docs
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Whittemore, Lauren Estelle (California) show/hide docs
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Other Lawyers Allred, Gloria (California) show/hide docs
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Alvare, Helen (Virginia) show/hide docs
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Bailey, Arthur (California) show/hide docs
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Bass, Joren Surya (California) show/hide docs
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Berner, Nicole (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Boccuzzi, Carmine Daniel (New York) show/hide docs
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Borenstein, Ruth N. (California) show/hide docs
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Bornstein, Lisa M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Boyle, David C. (California) show/hide docs
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Bradley, Gerard V. (Indiana) show/hide docs
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Potchen, Joseph E. (Michigan) show/hide docs
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