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Case Name Lee v. Macon County Bd. of Ed. SD-AL-0002
Docket / Court Civ. A. No. 604-E ( M.D. Ala. )
Additional Docket(s) 604-E  [ -604 ]  Middle District of AL (U.S.)
State/Territory Alabama
Case Type(s) Education
School Desegregation
Special Collection Civil Rights Division Archival Collection
Selma and early civil rights enforcement
Attorney Organization U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Case Summary
Introduction

This case began on 1963 when a group of Black students and parents sought to desegregate the twenty public schools of Macon County, Alabama. At that time seventeen of the county’s schools were designated for Black children and three for white children. This was one ... read more >
Introduction

This case began on 1963 when a group of Black students and parents sought to desegregate the twenty public schools of Macon County, Alabama. At that time seventeen of the county’s schools were designated for Black children and three for white children. This was one of many such cases dealing with school desegregation on a school system-by-system basis. Soon after the case was filed, the court ordered the desegregation of Macon County’s schools. However, after interference from Governor George Wallace and other state officials in the county's efforts to comply with the court order, the federal district court responded by issuing an unprecedented statewide order that would serve as the legal basis for the enforcement of desegregation across all Alabama's public school and an example for similar statewide orders across the country.

The Beginning of the Lee Case

The plaintiffs filed a class-action complaint on January 28, 1963 in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama. The named plaintiffs were Black students and parents seeking to represent all Black minors in the district. The complaint alleged that, under color of state law, the Macon County Board of Education and Superintendent of Schools had maintained a racially segregated school system, evidenced by the fact that zero white students attended the same school as any Black student. The plaintiffs sought injunctive relief to force the Board of Education to end the distribution of teachers, staff, resources, opportunities, and students to separate schools on the basis of race. The plaintiffs’ legal team included Fred Gray, a prominent civil rights attorney whose former clients included Rosa Parks and whose past cases included the landmark Supreme Court cases Gomillion v. Lightfoot and New York Times Co. v. Sullivan and by Constance Baker Motley, who later became the first Black female federal judge. The case was assigned to District Judge Frank Johnson, sitting in Montgomery, Alabama.

The first stages of litigation were surprisingly non-adversarial. The School Board filed a two-page motion to dismiss on the basis that the plaintiffs had not exhausted their administrative remedies under the Alabama Pupil Placement Law. However, it did not seem to have been a full-throated maneuver; when the court ordered that the School Board file a brief supporting its position, it failed to do so.

On July 16, 1963, Judge Johnson took the unusual step of allowing the United States to intervene in the proceeding not only as an amicus curiae but as a party. At that time, the Justice Department was not statutorily authorized to bring such suits on their own authority and so was generally not a party to such cases. This was done "in order to maintain and preserve the due administration of justice and the integrity of the judicial processes of the United States."

In the face of clear law and overwhelming evidence, in an August 13, 1963 hearing on the plaintiffs’ motion for preliminary injunctive relief, the Chairman and Superintendent of the School Board openly recognized their duty to bring an end to the segregated school system that deprived Macon County citizens of their constitutional rights. Based on this candid admission, the court accepted the Board's assurance that they were ready to desegregate of their own accord and ordered only that they do so immediately and produce a plan for the court to review no later than December of that year. 221 F.Supp. 297.

George Wallace Resists Integration

Within only a few weeks of the order, the School Board approved twelve Black students to transfer to the formerly all-white Tuskegee High School. However, this strong start did not hold. Alabama Governor George Wallace, by executive order, first delayed the school's opening and then, when the school was set to open one week later, issued another executive order that "no student shall be permitted to integrate the public schools of the City of Tuskegee, Alabama." For the next three days, state troopers guarded the entrance to the school, blocking the Black students from attending class. During this time, every white student at Tuskegee High School was transferred to one of the other nearby all-white schools, including a private school that had been hastily assembled with state grant money to accept the displaced white students. Finally, on September 12, 1963, the Black students were permitted into the school; they were, by then, the only students.

These twelve students attended Tuskegee High School until January 30, 1964, when the Alabama State Board of Education, led by Governor Wallace, ordered that Tuskegee High School be shut down (for thinly-veiled "economic reasons") and that the twelve students be transferred elsewhere. All twelve students subsequently applied to transfer to one of the two remaining all-white public schools in the county.

On February 3, 1964, plaintiffs filed an amended and supplemental complaint on the basis that the Macon County Board of Education had not yet acted on the twelve students' applications for transfer. Plaintiffs sought either for Tuskegee High School to be re-opened or that the students be accepted for transfer on the same basis as white students had earlier in the year. This amended complaint also added Governor Wallace and other members of the Alabama State Board of Education to the list of defendants and asked for an injunction that they be enjoined from interfering with the desegregation efforts of Macon County and from continuing to operate a segregated education system in the state of Alabama. On the same day that the supplemental complaint was filed, Judge Johnson granted plaintiffs a temporary restraining order, compelling the Macon County Board of Education to accept the transfer applications and provide transportation to the students on the same basis as white students.

The Three Judge District Court

After this temporary restraining order was granted, the United States made its first important move as a party: it filed a brief asking the court to declare unconstitutional the Alabama Pupil Placement Law that facially enabled administrators to place students based on merit or special circumstances but, in reality, was used as a mechanism for operationalizing segregation. Because, at the time, federal law required convening of a three-judge district court when the constitutionality of a state law was challenged, the Fifth Circuit appointed two additional judges, Judge Richard Rives of the Fifth Circuit and Judge Harlan Hobart Grooms of the Northern District of Alabama, to preside over the case alongside Judge Johnson.

Following the February temporary restraining order, Macon County accepted the Black students' transfer applications. Six of the students were transferred to the all-white Macon County High School. They attended until April 17, 1964, when arsonists, in the middle of the night, burned down the part of the school used by the Black students. The Macon County Board of Education responded by informing the students that, for their safety, they would be transferred back to an all-Black school. On April 24, 1964, plaintiffs moved for additional relief to prevent this transfer. On April 28, their relief was granted in the form of an injunction enjoining Macon County from transferring the students or disrupting their school transportation. Citing the Eighth Circuit's opinion in Aaron v. Cooper, 257 F.2d 33, the court wrote that:
"The time has not yet come in these United States when an order of a Federal Court must be whittled away, watered down, or shamefully withdrawn in the face of violent and unlawful acts of individual citizens thereto."
The United States took this win as an opportunity to make its next significant move as a party, moving that the court expand its temporary restraining order into a preliminary injunction declaring unconstitutional both the Alabama Pupil Placement Law and the grant-in-aid statute that authorized the governor to disburse government funds to segregated private schools, used to shelter white students from desegregating public schools. Most boldly, it asked the court to order the desegregation of all Alabama primary and secondary schools on the basis that Governor Wallace was clearly failing in his duty to do so.

The three-judge panel's ruling, issued on July 13, 1964, was both sweeping and measured. It expanded its temporary restraining order into a preliminary injunction and, finding that they had "willfully" interfered with the administration of court-ordered desegregation measures, and enjoined Governor Wallace and the Alabama Board of Education from interfering in not only Macon County's desegregation but in all Alabamian desegregation efforts pursuant to federal court orders. It is at this point that the scope of the case, at least in terms of judgments, widened beyond the county of its origin, a step made possible because of the United States' aggressive litigation and its presence as a party with legal interest in the broader administration of justice.

However, the court stopped short of many of the specific measures the United States sought. It did not order desegregation of all Alabama public schools, and it did not declare unconstitutional the statutes that gave school officials authority to structure segregated schools and disburse grant money, though it did hold that their being used to implement segregation was unlawful. As a final measure, it rejected the desegregation plan Macon County had submitted pursuant to the original August 1963 order, ordering the Board of Education to produce a new plan by the following month. 231 F.Supp. 743.

On August 7, 1964, the court approved Macon County's new desegregation plan, and while the case went quiet, Governor Wallace did not. He continued to speak out against desegregation, promoting a bill that frustrated local efforts to follow federal guidelines for desegregation and goading local officials toward "minimum compliance" with court orders. On September 22, 1966, Gray, the attorney for the plaintiff class, responded aggressively, moving that the court order Governor Wallace to show cause why he should not be held in contempt of court for his actions or, in the alternative, to desegregate all Alabama public schools by court order.

NAACP v. Wallace

Adding another layer of complexity, the NAACP had in the meantime filed its own separate lawsuit against Governor Wallace on September 12, 1966. That case—Alabama NAACP State Conference of Branches v. Wallace, Civ. A. No. 2457-N—challenged the constitutionality of the 1966 law that frustrated local efforts to follow federal guidelines. As in Lee, because this case challenged the constitutionality of a state law, it also required a three-judge panel; that panel was made up of Judge Rives, Judge Johnson, and Judge Virgil Pittman of the Middle District of Alabama. Because of its common legal questions, that case was then consolidated with Lee. Because both cases had three judges, two of which overlapped in both cases, Lee would now be overseen by a total of four judges at the district level.

A trial for both cases was held from November 30 to December 2, 1964. When Austin Meadows, the former Executive Officer of the Alabama State Board of Education, was asked if he had ever encouraged the elimination of racial discrimination in Alabama schools, he replied, "No," and then later, "I have never encouraged anybody to initiate desegregation plans."

On March 22, 1967, the court unanimously ordered defendants, including the new Governor Lurleen Wallace (former Governor George Wallace's wife, who ran after her husband reached his term limit), to implement a 'freedom of choice' desegregation plan, whereby students could freely elect to attend a different school than that which was initially assigned to them, on a statewide basis. However, the court recognized that this would not necessarily be a successful method for integration and that it was not the only method available, writing:
"In adopting this plan, therefore, we stress again that it may be only an interim plan. Its success will be periodically judged in the light of the criteria herein set out. For this and all other purposes, jurisdiction will be retained."
Adding to this order, the court opted to withdraw the deference it had shown three years earlier, finally declaring unconstitutional the placement and grant statutes that had been used to segregate Alabama schools. The court order delved into detail on matters of transportation, faculty, and facilities and required officials to make equal the resources that had formerly been made available to Black students and report regularly to the court on their progress. Finally, the order expanded the scope of the case to apply its orders to include trade school, junior colleges, and state colleges. 267 F.Supp. 458.

In a subsequent ruling on the NAACP case, the court released a much shorter order invalidating the 1966 state law that frustrated local efforts to follow federal desegregation guidelines and finding those federal guidelines to be constitutional. The court issued no injunction in conjunction with its opinion, acknowledging that the underlying matters had already been addressed in the Lee judgment. 269 F. Supp. 346.

Governor Lurleen Wallace filed for an emergency stay of the order, first in the district court and then in the Supreme Court, but was denied in both venues. She then filed a direct appeal in the Supreme Court, which at that time was permitted when a district court invalidated a state law as unconstitutional, but the Supreme Court affirmed the district court's opinion in a one-sentence summary opinion. 389 U.S. 215 (1967).

Continued Efforts Towards Desegregation

From March until September of 1967, the court, alongside the Justice Department and the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW, now HHS), reviewed the compliance plans of the 99 Alabama school systems to which the March 1967 order applied. This was not an entirely frictionless process. On July 14, 1967, the court enjoined HEW from withholding any federal funds on the basis of non-compliance, finding that only the court could determine compliance with a court order.

Because the March 22 order was only applicable to the named state officials, including the governor, enforcement in some cases required adding individual school systems as defendants to compel the adoption of desegregation plans. Over the course of these months, at least ten school systems were at one point or another added as parties, a list to which there would continue to be additions and subtractions as enforcement required.

Meanwhile, state officials continued attempts to circumvent the court's orders. On September 1, 1967, Governor Wallace signed into law two new bills: one of which created a panel in charge of disbursing grant-in-aid money (presumably since the court struck down its first grant-in-aid statute); another required school districts to give parents a choice as to the race of their teacher, threatening total deprivation of state funds for all school systems that do not. On September 5, 1967, the (now again) three-judge panel granted a temporary restraining order against enforcement of the parental choice law, and on November 3, 1967, declared both new laws in violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.

Now deep in the process of desegregating school populations, attention shifted toward "secondary" issues of desegregation that had not formerly been reached in the state. Also represented by Fred Gray, who already represented the original plaintiff class, the Alabama State Teachers Association, an association of some 10,000 Black teachers in Alabama, successfully intervened to represent its interest in making sure that, as schools were consolidated and reshuffled, Black teachers did not bear the brunt of the reorganization.

Likewise, the United States sought to address its own secondary issue of choice: school athletics. On February 20, 1968, the United States moved to have the Superintendent of (Alabama) Schools require that school districts integrate their athletics programs and play schedules, allowing no school to play another school that is not integrated. One week later, the United States filed a parallel motion pertaining to state and junior colleges. On April 1, 1968, the court granted the United States' motion and ordered state officials to merge the two formerly racially separate statewide athletic associations into one and to require that, if school systems do join an athletic association, they be required to join that one.

Unsatisfied with the speed of progress being made and bolstered by the Supreme Court's decision in Green v. County School Board of New Kent Co., Va, holding that a school district's free-choice plan (like the one ordered in Alabama) was insufficient under Brown, the United States moved to have the free-choice plan in Alabama likewise declared insufficient to meet the state's constitutional obligation. In an August 28, 1968 decree, the court declined to take this hardline approach. Instead, it read Green more narrowly to mean that a plan is insufficient only once it produces insufficient results. As a result, it did not declare unconstitutional the free-choice system, which had theretofore been received more-or-less peaceably by Alabama citizens, but instead set very specific race-based hiring requirements for each school in the state, on the belief that an integrated faculty would eventually lead to a legitimately integrated student body. With the exception of its role in approving and denying individual school systems' desegregation plans, this was the first time the court took a truly prescriptive stance in determining the specific actions school systems needed to take to be within compliance. 292 F. Supp. 363.

Splitting up the Lee Litigation

In 1969, Richard Nixon was inaugurated as President of the United States. Hoping that the change in administration would be reflected in a less robust federal defense of desegregation, at least 15 school systems filed petitions seeking to amend the August 28, 1968 decree. Most of these motions were denied, and the record suggests that none of the decrees were altered substantially.

Instead, the new administration took its first major action in Lee on April 30, 1969, when it filed a motion asking the court to require the Alabama State Board of Education and the State Superintendent of Education to formulate and execute a plan for the desegregation of its state-run trade schools and junior colleges. The court ordered the defendants to submit a desegregation plan and, during a hearing on May 27, informed the defendants that their plan was insufficient, directing them to submit new plans. Defendants did not submit new plans by September 17, so the court ordered HEW to create plans for them. In March and July 1970, HEW and the Alabama State Board of Education, respectively, submitted desegregation plans, and on August 14, 1970, the district court enjoined the State Board from spending on buildings or equipment for the junior colleges until it had desegregated and equalized its junior colleges originally designated for Black students. Most notably, the district court required that the junior colleges establish "attendance zones" for each college to promote greater racial balance. 317 F.Supp. 103.

This proved to be the bridge too far. On July 15, 1971, the Fifth Circuit temporarily stayed enforcement of the attendance zones, writing:
"Well established principles of public school desegregation have not been applied generally to institutions of higher learning in the same manner in which they have been applied to public schools below the college level. This court feels some reluctance to require school attendance zones for college level institutions." 453 F.2d 524.
On October 16, 1972, it fully vacated and remanded that part of the order. 468 F.2d 956.

At this stage, the court's orders became increasingly granular, and the record contains little detail as to the particulars of each district's desegregation plans or why or how the court approved, amended, or rejected them. According to an account by DOJ attorney Brian Landsberg, HEW and the DOJ worked closely together to study and analyze the plans and progress of Alabama schools, which by 1970 were among the most successfully integrated in the country.

Acknowledging the changing nature of the case, on March 31, 1970, the three-judge panel began the process of disassembling the massive Lee case into its individual components, transferring to the Southern and Northern Districts of Alabama those aspects of the case concerning counties within their geographic jurisdictions. Three months later, the three-judge panel directed its clerks to assign new docket numbers and individual judges to oversee the systems within the Middle District, officially dissolving the triumvirate.

The Clearinghouse has divided the remaining Lee litigation into three separate entries for each of Alabama’s judicial districts.

To continue reading about the cases that continued in the Northern District, click here.

To continue reading about the cases that continued in the Middle District, click here.

To continue reading about the cases that continued in the Southern District, click here.

Sean Drohan - 08/19/2021
Jonah Hudson-Erdman - 11/14/2021


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Busing
Develop anti-discrimination policy
Discrimination Prohibition
Goals (e.g., for hiring, admissions)
Other requirements regarding hiring, promotion, retention
Preliminary relief granted
Recordkeeping
Reporting
Required disclosure
Student assignment
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Buildings
Disparate Impact
Disparate Treatment
Education
Racial segregation
Record-keeping
Records Disclosure
School/University Facilities
School/University policies
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Transportation
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Black
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Ex parte Young (federal or state officials)
Defendant(s) Alabama State Board of Education
Macon County Board of Education
Plaintiff Description African American students and parents in Macon County, Alabama, on behalf of others similarly situated; later, the United States of America intervened in this case in support of the plaintiffs
Indexed Lawyer Organizations U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status outcome Granted
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Document/information produced
Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Declaratory Judgment
Attorneys fees
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Filed 01/28/1963
Case Closing Year 1970
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing SD-AL-0007 : Lee and United States of America v. Macon County School Board (N.D. Ala. Case) (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0022 : Lee and United States of America v. Macon County School Board (S.D. Ala. cases) (S.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0023 : Lee and United States of America v. Macon County School Board (M.D. Ala. cases) (M.D. Ala.)
Additional Resources
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  Why Alabama School Desegregation Succeeded (And Failed)
Case W. Rsrv. L. Rev.
Date: 2017
By: Wendy Parker (Wake Forest University School of Law Faculty)
Citation: 67 Case W. Rsrv. L. Rev. 1091 (2017)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Lee v. Macon County Board of Education: The Possibilities of Federal Enforcement of Equal Educational Opportunity
Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy
Date: 2016
By: Brian K. Landsberg (Pacific McGeorge School of Law Faculty)
Citation: 12 Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy 1-52 (2016)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Enforcing Desegregation: A Case Study of Federal District Court Power and Social Change in Macon County Alabama
Date: Jul. 17, 2014
By: Brian K. Landsberg (University of the Pacific - McGeorge School of Law Faculty)
Citation: 48 Law & Soc'y Rev. 867-891 (2014)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Segregation Now
Date: Apr. 16, 2014
By: Nikole Hannah-Jones (ProPublica)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
Encyclopedia of Alabama
Date: Dec. 11, 2013
By: C. J. Schexnayder
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Henry Hampton Collection: Interview of Hon. Robert Lee Carter
Henry Hampton Collection: Washington University in St. Louis
Date: Nov. 5, 1985
By: Robert Lee Carter, Henry Hampton Collection
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Court Docket(s)
M.D. Ala.
10/29/2004
604-E
SD-AL-0002-9002.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
06/20/2005
846-E
SD-AL-0002-9001.pdf | Detail
Source: Pro Publica
M.D. Ala.
05/22/2006
3:70-cv-00846-MHT-DRB
SD-AL-0002-9000.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
M.D. Ala.
Appendix E to the Brief of the United States: Proposed Decree
SD-AL-0002-0060.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Ruben Ortenberg
M.D. Ala.
Motion of the United States to Add Parties Defendant, For an Order to Show Cause and for Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0061.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
Proposed Decree
SD-AL-0002-0068.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
Motion for Preliminary Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0084.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
Motion of the United States for Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0086.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
Comparison: Trade Schools and Junior Colleges
SD-AL-0002-0089.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
Comparison: Equalization of Facilities
SD-AL-0002-0091.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
Comparison: Interference
SD-AL-0002-0093.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
Appendices A-D in Support of the Brief of the United States
SD-AL-0002-0001.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
Appendices C-D Brief of the United States in Support of Motion for Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0002.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
United States' Summaries of Depositions and Testimony Volume I
SD-AL-0002-0010.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
United States' Summaries of Depositions and Testimony Volume II
SD-AL-0002-0011.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
United States' Summaries of Depositions and Testimony Volume III
SD-AL-0002-0012.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
01/28/1963
Complaint
SD-AL-0002-0107.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/11/1963
Motion to Strike and Dismiss
SD-AL-0002-0159.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/09/1963
Motion for Preliminary Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0160.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/16/1963
Order Appointing and Designating the US as a Party
SD-AL-0002-0161.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
08/22/1963
Order (221 F.Supp. 297)
SD-AL-0002-0044.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
08/22/1963
Memorandum Opinion and Order
SD-AL-0002-0162.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
08/27/1963
Tentative Findings and Conclusions
SD-AL-0002-0109.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/03/1964
Amended and Supplemental Complaint
SD-AL-0002-0110.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/03/1964
Motion for Preliminary Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0111.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/03/1964
Affidavit of Fred D. Gray
SD-AL-0002-0112.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/03/1964
Temporary Restraining Order
SD-AL-0002-0113.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/15/1964
Verification
SD-AL-0002-0115.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/20/1964
Answer of Defendant Alabama State Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0114.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
04/28/1964
Memorandum Opinion and Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0116.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/13/1964
Reply Brief of United States
SD-AL-0002-0008.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/13/1964
Order (231 F.Supp. 743)
SD-AL-0002-0045.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
07/16/1964
Trial Brief of the United States
SD-AL-0002-0009.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/10/1964
Answer of Defendant Macon Academy
SD-AL-0002-0117.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/10/1964
Answer
SD-AL-0002-0168.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
03/11/1966
Order (253 F.Supp. 727)
SD-AL-0002-0046.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
08/26/1966
Complaint in Intervention
SD-AL-0002-0106.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Alexander (Sandy) Ross
M.D. Ala.
08/30/1966
Motion for Leave to Intervene and to File a Supplemental Complaint
SD-AL-0002-0119.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/21/1966
Answer to Supplemental Complaint
SD-AL-0002-0120.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/22/1966
Motion for Order to Show Cause or, in the Alternative, for Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0121.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/17/1966
Order
SD-AL-0002-0122.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/18/1966
Brief in Support of the Motion for Preliminary Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0005.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/22/1966
Interrogatories Propounded Under the Provisions of Rule 33
SD-AL-0002-0123.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/22/1966
Interrogatories Propounded Under the Provisions of Rule 33
SD-AL-0002-0173.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/31/1966
Deposition of Gene Crowder
SD-AL-0002-0124.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
11/12/1966
Work Program, Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0078.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
11/18/1966
Notice of Motion for Preliminary Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0125.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
11/21/1966
Motion for Leave to File Supplemental Complaint Adding as Party Defendant George c. Wallace in his Capacity as Governor of the State of Alabama
SD-AL-0002-0126.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
11/30/1966
Trial Transcript (pg. 1 to 105)
SD-AL-0002-0127.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
11/30/1966
Trial Transcript (pg. 105 to 175)
SD-AL-0002-0128.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
11/30/1966
Trial Transcript (pg. 176 to 247)
SD-AL-0002-0129.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
12/01/1966
Trial Transcript (pg. 1 to 92)
SD-AL-0002-0130.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
12/01/1966
Trial Transcript (pg. 92-195)
SD-AL-0002-0131.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
12/01/1966
Trial Transcript (pg.196-234).pdf
SD-AL-0002-0132.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
12/02/1966
Trial Transcript (pg. 1-88)
SD-AL-0002-0133.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
01/03/1967
Draft (with penciled comments) Appendix E to the Brief of the United States; Proposed Decree
SD-AL-0002-0003.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
01/11/1967
Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0070.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
01/11/1967
Lee v. Macon Work Schedule
SD-AL-0002-0072.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
01/13/1967
Preparation for Oral Argument in Lee v. Macon County
SD-AL-0002-0071.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
01/24/1967
Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0067.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
02/03/1967
Notice of Motion to Supplement Record
SD-AL-0002-0007.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
02/03/1967
Oral Argument, Lee v. Macon County Board of Education and NAACP v. Wallace, February 3, 1967
SD-AL-0002-0077.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
02/06/1967
Untitled
SD-AL-0002-0076.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
02/09/1967
Portions of the Oral Argument in Lee v. Macon County School Board, February 3, 1967; to Supplement Mr. Landsberg's Memorandum
SD-AL-0002-0075.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
02/22/1967
Supplemental Brief of the United States
SD-AL-0002-0014.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
03/22/1967
Decree
SD-AL-0002-0006.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
03/22/1967
Writ of Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0013.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
03/22/1967
Order (267 F.Supp. 458)
SD-AL-0002-0047.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
not recorded
03/30/1967
Draft Pleadings- Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0082.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
03/30/1967
Affidavit
SD-AL-0002-0103.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
03/31/1967
[Letter from Wiley Salter to MacDonald Gallion]
SD-AL-0002-0099.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
03/31/1967
[Letter from Ben Johnson to MacDonald Gallion]
SD-AL-0002-0102.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
04/04/1967
[Correspondence from William N. Eddins to MacDonald Gallion]
SD-AL-0002-0100.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
04/07/1967
Notice of Appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States
SD-AL-0002-0101.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
04/07/1967
Differences Between Obligation Under 4410B and Under Lee v. Macon County Board of Education Desegregation Plan
SD-AL-0002-0104.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
04/10/1967
Application for Stay
SD-AL-0002-0096.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
04/13/1967
Lee v. Macon County Enforcement
SD-AL-0002-0081.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
04/13/1967
Re: Lee, et al. v. Macon County Board of Education, et al.- CA No. 604-E
SD-AL-0002-0095.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
04/15/1967
Order
SD-AL-0002-0069.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
04/24/1967
Order Adding Parties Defendant, Requiring All Defendants to Show Cause Why the Added Defendants Should Not Be Required to Adopt Desegregation Plans Conforming to the Court's Decree and Granting Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0085.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
05/01/1967
Comparison: Teachers
SD-AL-0002-0090.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
05/03/1967
Opinion (269 F.Supp. 346)
SD-AL-0002-0181.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Westlaw
not recorded
05/04/1967
Affidavit of Dr. Ernest Stone State Superintendent of Education
SD-AL-0002-0087.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
U.S. Supreme Court
05/04/1967
Application for Stay Pending Appeal
SD-AL-0002-0097.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
05/09/1967
Re: Wallace v. Lee- Brief of Appellants on Motion for Stay- Mailed May 9, 1967
SD-AL-0002-0094.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
05/15/1967
Stay in Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0073.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
U.S. Supreme Court
05/22/1967
Opinion (87 S.Ct. 2026)
SD-AL-0002-0180.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: Westlaw
not recorded
06/01/1967
Comparison: School Construction and Consolidation
SD-AL-0002-0092.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
06/14/1967
Lee v. Macon
SD-AL-0002-0074.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
06/15/1967
Writ of Injunction
SD-AL-0002-0134.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
07/01/1967
Comparison: Desegregation Plans for Local School Systems
SD-AL-0002-0088.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
07/14/1967
Temporary Restraining Order and Order Setting Cause for Hearing
SD-AL-0002-0135.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/28/1967
Order (270 F.Supp. 859)
SD-AL-0002-0048.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
07/28/1967
Lee v. Macon County Report
SD-AL-0002-0136.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/28/1967
Letter from DOJ to Clerk re HEW Tabulation.pdf
SD-AL-0002-0137.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
08/19/1967
[Re: Alanson Wilcox's Letter]
SD-AL-0002-0083.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
08/20/1967
[Re: Letter from General Counsel of HEW]
SD-AL-0002-0066.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
08/21/1967
Memorandum for the Attorney General
SD-AL-0002-0098.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
not recorded
08/23/1967
Lee et al. v. Macon County et al.
SD-AL-0002-0079.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
U.S. Supreme Court
09/01/1967
Motion to Affirm
SD-AL-0002-0105.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
09/01/1967
Motion for Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0138.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/02/1967
Notice of Motion and Motion for Leave to Intervene as Plaintiff
SD-AL-0002-0139.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/05/1967
Temporary Restraining Order
SD-AL-0002-0140.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/20/1967
Complaint in Intervention
SD-AL-0002-0141.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/23/1967
Motion for More Definite Statement
SD-AL-0002-0142.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
10/10/1967
Answer of Defendants Lurleen Burns Wallace, in her Capacity as Governor of the State of Alabama and as President of the Alabama State Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0143.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
10/18/1967
Alabama State-Wide Desegregation Suit (Lee v. Macon County)
SD-AL-0002-0080.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
M.D. Ala.
11/03/1967
Opinion
SD-AL-0002-0144.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
not recorded
11/24/1967
Lee v. Macon County Board of Education
SD-AL-0002-0063.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Owen Fiss
U.S. Supreme Court
12/04/1967
Opinion (88 S.Ct. 415)
SD-AL-0002-0179.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: Westlaw
M.D. Ala.
12/14/1967
Exerpts from Minutes of Meeting of State Board of Education held on December 14, 1967
SD-AL-0002-0145.pdf | Detail
M.D. Ala.
12/14/1967
Excerpts From the Minutes of Meeting of State Board of Education Held on December 14, 1967
SD-AL-0002-0178.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/20/1968
Notice of Motion and Motion
SD-AL-0002-0146.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
02/27/1968
Notice of Motion and Motion
SD-AL-0002-0147.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
03/08/1968
Ernest Stone Deposition Transcript
SD-AL-0002-0148.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
04/01/1968
Order (283 F.Supp. 194)
SD-AL-0002-0049.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
04/01/1968
Decree
SD-AL-0002-0149.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
07/19/1968
Order (289 F.Supp. 975)
SD-AL-0002-0050.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
08/21/1968
Brief of the United States in Support of Motion for Further Relief
SD-AL-0002-0004.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
08/28/1968
Memorandum Opinion (292 F.Supp. 363)
SD-AL-0002-0057.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
08/28/1968
Decree
SD-AL-0002-0151.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/01/1968
Harold E. Lutz Deposition Transcript
SD-AL-0002-0152.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
09/01/1968
John L. Meadows Deposition Transcript
SD-AL-0002-0153.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
05/27/1969
Answer to Interrogatories
SD-AL-0002-0154.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
08/01/1969
Motion for Order to Show Cause
SD-AL-0002-0155.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
04/20/1970
Clerk's Certificate
SD-AL-0002-0156.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
M.D. Ala.
06/12/1970
Order (317 F.Supp. 95)
SD-AL-0002-0051.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
U.S. Court of Appeals
07/15/1970
Opinion (429 F.2d 1218)
SD-AL-0002-0020.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
M.D. Ala.
08/14/1970
Memorandum Opinion (317 F.Supp. 103)
SD-AL-0002-0052.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
08/28/1970
Motion to Add Parties Defendant
SD-AL-0002-0157.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
N.D. Ala.
01/04/1971
Memorandum of Decision and Order (321 F.Supp. 1)
SD-AL-0002-0053.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
U.S. Court of Appeals
06/14/1971
Mandate (443 F.2d 1367)
SD-AL-0002-0021.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
06/29/1971
Order / Rehearing and Rehearing En Banc (448 F.2d 746)
SD-AL-0002-0022.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
07/15/1971
Order (453 F.2d 524)
SD-AL-0002-0023.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
12/28/1971
Order (453 F.2d 1104)
SD-AL-0002-0024.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
02/04/1972
Per Curiam (455 F.2d 978)
SD-AL-0002-0025.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
03/06/1972
Order (456 F.2d 1371)
SD-AL-0002-0026.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
07/17/1972
Order (463 F.2d 1174)
SD-AL-0002-0027.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
08/14/1972
Order (465 F.2d 369)
SD-AL-0002-0028.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
10/16/1972
Per Curiam (468 F.2d 956)
SD-AL-0002-0029.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
11/06/1972
Order Affirming Judgment (470 F.2d 958)
SD-AL-0002-0030.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
12/22/1972
Order Dismissing Appeal (470 F.2d 960)
SD-AL-0002-0031.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
02/27/1973
Order (475 F.2d 748)
SD-AL-0002-0032.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
07/20/1973
Order (482 F.2d 1253)
SD-AL-0002-0033.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
08/10/1973
Order (483 F.2d 242)
SD-AL-0002-0034.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
08/10/1973
Order (483 F.2d 244)
SD-AL-0002-0054.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
U.S. Court of Appeals
03/06/1974
Order Vacating Judgment (490 F.2d 458)
SD-AL-0002-0035.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
03/12/1974
[Order affirming district court] (491 F.2d 1272)
SD-AL-0002-0042.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Westlaw
U.S. Court of Appeals
08/15/1974
Order Dismissing Appeal (498 F.2d 1090)
SD-AL-0002-0036.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Public.Resource.Org
U.S. Supreme Court
12/16/1977
Memorandum for the United States in Opposition
SD-AL-0002-0062.pdf | Detail
Source: Papers of David Norman
U.S. Court of Appeals
11/15/1978
Order (584 F.2d 78)
SD-AL-0002-0037.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
05/07/1980
Order (616 F.2d 805)
SD-AL-0002-0038.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
07/13/1981
Order Affirming Judgment (650 F.2d 608)
SD-AL-0002-0039.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
N.D. Ala.
03/18/1988
Memorandum Opinion (681 F.Supp. 730)
SD-AL-0002-0055.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
N.D. Ala.
07/25/1988
Memorandum Opinion (1988 WL 288974)
SD-AL-0002-0058.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
08/18/1992
Opinion (970 F.2d 767)
SD-AL-0002-0040.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
03/05/1993
Order (987 F.2d 1521)
SD-AL-0002-0041.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
U.S. Court of Appeals
06/18/1993
Order (995 F.2d 184)
SD-AL-0002-0043.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
N.D. Ala.
01/10/1996
Memorandum Opinion (914 F.Supp. 489)
SD-AL-0002-0056.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
M.D. Ala.
08/05/2005
Order [ECF# 96]
SD-AL-0002-0015.pdf | Detail
M.D. Ala.
08/08/2005
Order [ECF# 97]
SD-AL-0002-0016.pdf | Detail
M.D. Ala.
08/19/2005
Order [ECF# 101]
SD-AL-0002-0017.pdf | Detail
M.D. Ala.
02/17/2006
Order [ECF# 119]
SD-AL-0002-0018.pdf | Detail
M.D. Ala.
05/22/2006
Opinion [ECF# 124] (2006 WL 1381873)
SD-AL-0002-0059.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
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SD-AL-0002-0037
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Clemon, U. W. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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SD-AL-0002-0037
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Doar, John (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Donaldson, Frank W. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0055
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Finkelstein, Joel M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0005
Fiss, Owen M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Frankland, Kenneth P. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0009
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Glassman, Jeremiah (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-9000
Gorman, Walter (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Gray, Fred David Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-9000
Greenberg, Jack (New York) show/hide docs
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Gregory, David D. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0020
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Hardeman, Ben (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Hedland, John (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Keeling, Thomas M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Larson, Thomas M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Leonard, Jerris (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Loper, Merle W. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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SD-AL-0002-0005
Massey, W. Troy (Alabama) show/hide docs
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McCree, Wade Hampton Jr. (Michigan) show/hide docs
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Moore, John R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Motley, Constance Baker (New York) show/hide docs
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Nabrit, James M. III (New York) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0020
Nesson, Charles R. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Oleson, Ronald L. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-9002
Ortenberg, Reuben (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Pierson, Dennis (Alabama) show/hide docs
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SD-AL-0002-9002
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SD-AL-0002-0035
Pressman, Robert (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Privett, Caryl P (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Quaintance, Charles W. Jr. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Ralston, Charles Stephen (New York) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0121
Ravas, Theodore E. Jr. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Reynolds, William Bradford (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Ritsch, Joe (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Ross, Alexander C. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Scott, John (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Seay, Solomon S. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Shelton, Dorothy (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Sherrer, Wayman (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Spritzer, Ralph S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Sterlacci, Michael A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0025
Turner, James P. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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SD-AL-0002-9001
Wade, Dennis (New York) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0056
Watkins, Donald Varnardo (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-9002
White-Spunner, Charles S. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Williams, Charles E. III (New York) show/hide docs
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Defendant's Lawyers Baker, Sam Rice (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Beatty, Eugene A. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Blackburn, J. B. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Bowman, John S. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Brantley, Oliver (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0032
Burnham, H. R. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Casey, John S. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0035
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SD-AL-0002-9002
Coxwell, John M. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Culverhouse, Renee D. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Foshee, Jeff (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gallion, MacDonald (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Garrett, James (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0047
George, Edward (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0055
Gibson, J. Russell III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Goodwyn, O.J. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Haltom, E. B. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0026
Hardin, Taylor (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Huddleston, H. Jack (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Lloyd, Hugh A. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Manley, Richard S. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Merrill, Walter J. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Nix, J. B. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Owens, Windell C. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0031
Phelps, Sam M. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Smith, Maury D. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Stone, Norborne C. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0037
Thagard, Thomas W. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Other Lawyers Billingsley, Orzell Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0014
Carter, Robert Lee (New York) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0014
Flowers, Richmond M. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gray, Fred David Sr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Maddox, A. Hugh (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Madison, Gordon (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Muhammad, Lateefah (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-9000
Ray, Martin (Alabama) show/hide docs
SD-AL-0002-0014 | SD-AL-0002-0020
Samford, Thomas D. III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Satterfield, John C. (Mississippi) show/hide docs
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Zarr, Melvyn (New York) show/hide docs
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