University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse

The information included on this website, whether provided by personnel employed by the University of Michigan or by third parties, is provided for research and teaching purposes only. Neither the University of Michigan, nor any of its components, employees, agents, contractors, or affiliates warrants the accuracy or completeness of the information or analyses displayed herein, and we caution all readers that inclusion of any information on this site does not constitute an endorsement of the truthfulness or accuracy of that information.

In particular, this website contains complaints and other documents filed in federal and state courts, which make allegations that may or may not be accurate. No reader should, on the basis of information contained in or referenced by this website, assume that any of these allegations are true. The site also contains answers and other filings that deny or otherwise respond to the allegations contained in the complaints. No reader should, on the basis of information contained in or referenced by this website, assume that any of these denials or responses are true. Whoever produced them, the website's documents are argumentative and are reproduced as representations of the litigation process in federal and state courts; they are not presented for the truth or accuracy of the information contained therein.

This website also does not purport to post complete records of litigation in any matter included, or to be comprehensive in its coverage.

Neither the University of Michigan, nor any of its components, employees, agents, contractors, or affiliates accept responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of any information contained in the website, or obtained through any link referenced in this website. We have no knowledge or information as to the truth or accuracy of the information contained herein.

For further and more complete information, please refer directly to counsel or to plaintiff or defendant parties in the litigation, to the dockets of the courts in which the litigation is pending, to reported opinions in the cases, or to other sources.