University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
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Case Name Duffy v. Riveland PC-WA-0003
Docket / Court 2:92-cv-01596-BJR ( W.D. Wash. )
State/Territory Washington
Case Type(s) Disability Rights-Pub. Accom.
Prison Conditions
Case Summary
In 1992 and 1993, a deaf inmate incarcerated at the Washington State Reformatory at Monroe, Washington, filed two pro se suits in the U.S. District Court for the Western District Of Washington contending that prison officials failed to provide him with a qualified interpreter at prison proceedings ... read more >
In 1992 and 1993, a deaf inmate incarcerated at the Washington State Reformatory at Monroe, Washington, filed two pro se suits in the U.S. District Court for the Western District Of Washington contending that prison officials failed to provide him with a qualified interpreter at prison proceedings in violation of his rights under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 ("ADA"); the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 29 U.S.C. § 794 ("RA"); 42 U.S.C. § 1983 (" § 1983"); and Revised Code of Washington Chapters 2.42.120(1), (2), and (4) ("RCW").

In the first suit filed on October 26, 1992, styled Duffy v. Riveland (92-01596), Duffy challenged the defendants' failure to provide him with a qualified interpreter at a July 30, 1992, prison disciplinary hearing. By order dated January 28, 1994, the District Court (Judge Barbara J. Rothstein) granted summary judgment to the defendants. Duffy appealed.

In the second suit, styled Duffy v. Yost (93-637), Duffy challenged the defendants' failure to provide him with a qualified interpreter at two separate classification hearings. The District Court (Judge Coughenour) granted summary judgment to the defendants on April 19, 1994. Duffy appealed.

The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals consolidated the two cases on appeal and reversed the summary judgments in part (dismissal of ADA, RA, state law claims and § 1983 claims stemming from disciplinary hearing) and affirmed in part (dismissal of § 1983 claims stemming from classification hearings) and remanded the cases for further proceedings. Duffy v. Riveland. 98 F.3d 447 (1996).

On remand, both cases were assigned to District Judge Rothstein. Duffy amended his complaint and then filed a motion for partial summary judgment on his state law claim. On January 14, 1998, the District Court (Judge Barbara Rothstein) granted plaintiff's motion for summary judgment and held that state law (RCW 2.42.120) required the defendants to provide hearing-impaired inmates with a qualified interpreter at quasi-judicial proceedings. The Court ordered that injunctive relief should be extended to all future disciplinary hearings.

On February 10, 1998, a consolidated class action complaint was filed in the Duffy cases and the case Atkins v. Lehman, also pending in the District. A settlement of all claims followed. The settlement provided for the creation of a new Washington Department of Corrections policy governing treatment of disabled inmates, including provisions relating to providing certified interpreters and TTY access to hearing impaired inmates. In addition to the new policy, the DOC agreed to pay plaintiffs' attorneys fees of $150,000.

The District Court approved the class action settlement by order dated September 3, 1998. The settlement class included "All inmates incarcerated in Washington State Department of Corrections (DOC) facilities now or in the future who are deaf or whose hearing impairment substantially limits a major life activity."

We have no further information on this matter.

Dan Dalton - 02/20/2007
Jessica Kincaid - 07/14/2013


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Develop anti-discrimination policy
Discrimination Prohibition
Monitoring
Reporting
Defendant-type
Corrections
Disability
Hearing impairment
Discrimination-basis
Disability (inc. reasonable accommodations)
General
Classification / placement
Communication skills
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action State law
Section 504 (Rehabilitation Act), 29 U.S.C. § 701
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 12111 et seq.
42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) Washington Department of Corrections
Plaintiff Description All inmates incarcerated in Washington State Department of Corrections (DOC) facilities now or in the future who are deaf or whose hearing impairment substantially limits a major life activity.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Attorneys fees
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1998 - 2002
Case Closing Year 1998
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Civil Rights Injunctions Over Time: A Case Study of Jail and Prison Court Orders
N.Y.U. Law Review
By: Margo Schlanger (Washington University)
Citation: 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 550 (2006)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Judicial Policy Making and the Modern State: How the Courts Reformed America's Prisons
By: Malcolm M. Feeley & Edward Rubin (UC Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law & Vanderbilt School of Law Faculty)
Citation: (1998)
[ Detail ]

Docket(s)
93-cv-00637 (W.D. Wash.) 05/24/1997
PC-WA-0003-9001 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
96-cv-01985 (W.D. Wash.) 08/28/1997
PC-WA-0003-9002 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
92-1596 (W.D. Wash.) 08/01/2005
PC-WA-0003-9000 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Opinion 07/03/1996 (88 F.3d 1525)
PC-WA-0003-0013 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Order 09/13/1996 (88 F.3d 1537)
PC-WA-0003-0012 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 10/11/1996 (98 F.3d 447)
PC-WA-0003-0011 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Report and Recommendation 11/10/1997 (W.D. Wash.)
PC-WA-0003-0001 PDF | Detail
Order Granting Plaintiff's Motion for Summary Judgment 01/14/1998 (W.D. Wash.)
PC-WA-0003-0002 PDF | Detail
Plaintiff's Consolidated Complaint - Class Action 02/10/1998
PC-WA-0003-0003 PDF | Detail
Settlement Agreement 06/04/1998
PC-WA-0003-0004 PDF | Detail
Objections to Class Action Settlement (July 13 - Aug. 18, 1998) 08/18/1998
PC-WA-0003-0005 PDF | Detail
Declaration of Leonard J. Feldman in Support of Motion for Order Approving Settlement of Class Action 08/21/1998
PC-WA-0003-0006 PDF | Detail
Memorandum in Support of Motion for Order Approving Settlement of Class Action 08/21/1998
PC-WA-0003-0008 PDF | Detail
[Proposed] Order Granting Plaintiffs' Motion for Approving Settlement of Class Action 09/03/1998 (W.D. Wash.)
PC-WA-0003-0007 PDF | Detail
Order Granting Plaintiff's Motion Approving Settlement of Class Action 09/03/1998 (W.D. Wash.)
PC-WA-0003-0009 PDF | Detail
Stipulation and Order 09/03/1998 (W.D. Wash.)
PC-WA-0003-0010 PDF | Detail
Judges Poole, Cecil F. (N.D. Cal., Ninth Circuit)
PC-WA-0003-0011 | PC-WA-0003-0012 | PC-WA-0003-0013
Rothstein, Barbara Jacobs (W.D. Wash.)
PC-WA-0003-0002 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0008 | PC-WA-0003-0009 | PC-WA-0003-0010 | PC-WA-0003-9000 | PC-WA-0003-9001 | PC-WA-0003-9002
Sweigert, Philip K. (W.D. Wash.) [Magistrate]
PC-WA-0003-0001
Wiggins, Charles Edward (Ninth Circuit)
PC-WA-0003-0012 | PC-WA-0003-0013
Wright, Eugene Allen (Ninth Circuit)
PC-WA-0003-0012 | PC-WA-0003-0013
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Arthur, Patricia J. (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0003 | PC-WA-0003-9000
Charmatz, Marc P. (Maryland)
PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0011 | PC-WA-0003-9000
Crollard, Jeff B. (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0003 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0008 | PC-WA-0003-0009 | PC-WA-0003-0010
Fathi, David Cyrus (District of Columbia)
PC-WA-0003-0001 | PC-WA-0003-0003 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0008 | PC-WA-0003-0009 | PC-WA-0003-0010 | PC-WA-0003-9000 | PC-WA-0003-9002
Feldman, Leonard J. (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0001 | PC-WA-0003-0003 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0006 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0008 | PC-WA-0003-0009 | PC-WA-0003-0010 | PC-WA-0003-0011 | PC-WA-0003-0013 | PC-WA-0003-9000 | PC-WA-0003-9001
Luna, Felix (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0003 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0008 | PC-WA-0003-0009 | PC-WA-0003-0010
Defendant's Lawyers Carr, Douglas Wayne (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0001 | PC-WA-0003-0011 | PC-WA-0003-0013 | PC-WA-0003-9000 | PC-WA-0003-9001
Gregoire, Christine O. (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0004
Inglis, Shannon Elizabeth (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-9000
Judge, Daniel J. (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0001 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0010 | PC-WA-0003-0011 | PC-WA-0003-0013 | PC-WA-0003-9000
Nerup, Penelope (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0001 | PC-WA-0003-9000 | PC-WA-0003-9001 | PC-WA-0003-9002
Young, Thomas J. (Washington)
PC-WA-0003-0001 | PC-WA-0003-0004 | PC-WA-0003-0007 | PC-WA-0003-0010 | PC-WA-0003-9000 | PC-WA-0003-9001 | PC-WA-0003-9002
Other Lawyers None on record

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