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Case Name Haitian Centers Council, Inc. v. McNary IM-NY-0006
Docket / Court 92-CV-1258 ( E.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Immigration
Attorney Organization Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization (Yale)
Case Summary
On March 18, 1992, this action was brought by various organizations and Haitian aliens in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, challenging procedures of the Coast Guard interdiction program with respect to Haitian refugees. Under the program, Haitians that fled ... read more >
On March 18, 1992, this action was brought by various organizations and Haitian aliens in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, challenging procedures of the Coast Guard interdiction program with respect to Haitian refugees. Under the program, Haitians that fled their country were apprehended by the Coast Guard and detained on board Coast Guard cutters and at Guantánamo Bay. The INS interviewed the Haitian refugees and those found to have a "credible" fear of persecution were designated "screened in" and were eligible for transfer to the United States to pursue asylum claims. Those individuals found not to have a credible fear were "screened out" and were returned to Haiti. Plaintiffs claimed that under the program, Members of the Haitian Service Organizations, which attempted to render "legal counsel, advocacy, and representation," were denied access to the detained Haitians in violation of the First Amendment. Plaintiffs further claimed that the program violated federal immigration statutes, the Fifth Amendment, the APA, certain treaties and international agreements and executive directives.

A similar case, Haitian Refugee Center v. Baker, had been filed in the District of Columbia. See IM-DC-6 of this collection.

The District Court (Judge Sterling Johnson, Jr.) granted a preliminary injunction prohibiting the government from denying the Haitian Service Organizations immediate access to any member of the class of screened in plaintiffs. Haitian Centers Council, Inc. v. McNary, 1992 WL 155853 (E.D.N.Y. Apr 06, 1992). The government appealed. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit modified and affirmed. Haitian Centers Council, Inc. v. McNary, 969 F.2d 1326 (2nd Cir.1992).

Subsequently, on May 24, 1992, the President issued an Executive Order under which any Haitian interdicted beyond the territorial waters of the United States was to be returned directly to Haiti without being afforded the opportunity to undergo INS refugee screening. Plaintiffs moved for a TRO and preliminary injunction to prevent enforcement of the Executive Order, alleging that it violated § 243(h)(1) of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and Article 33 of the United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees. The District Court denied plaintiffs' motion for a TRO to prevent the government from returning interdicted Haitians. Haitian Centers Council, Inc. v. McNary, 1992 WL 155853 (E.D.N.Y. June 5 1992). The plaintiffs appealed and the Court of Appeals reversed. Haitian Centers Council, Inc. v. McNary, 969 F.2d 1350 (2nd Cir. 1992) Certiorari was granted.

The Supreme Court (Justice Stevens) reversed the Court of Appeals, holding that neither § 243(h) nor Article 33 limited the President's power to issue an Executive Order directing the Coast Guard to repatriate undocumented aliens intercepted on the high seas. Sale v. Haitian Centers Council, Inc., 509 U.S. 155, 113 S.Ct. 2549, 125 L.Ed.2d 128(1993), see also Sale v. Haitian Centers Council, Inc., 509 U.S. 918, 113 S.Ct. 3028, 125 L.Ed.2d 716 (1993).

On remand, parties settled the case. A joint motion for preliminary approval of the Settlement Agreement and for approval of the class notice was filed on January 20, 1994. Following a fairness hearing on February 23, 1994, the Court approved the Settlement Agreement. Terms of the settlement are unknown.

Dan Dalton - 01/03/2008


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
General
International law
Search policies
Immigration
Asylum - criteria
Asylum - procedure
Cuban/Haitian entrant
Refugees
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. §§ 1101 et seq.
Bivens
Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Defendant(s) Immigration and Naturalization Service
Secretary of State
United States Coast Guard
Plaintiff Description "Screened in" Haitian refugees detained subject to the U.S. interdiction program
Indexed Lawyer Organizations Jerome N. Frank Legal Services Organization (Yale)
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration not on record
Case Closing Year 1994
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing IM-FL-0008 : Haitian Refugee Center, Inc. v. Baker (S.D. Fla.)
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Threats to the Future of the Immigration Class Action
Washington University Journal of Law and Policy
By: Jill E. Family (Widener University School of Law)
Citation: 27 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol'y 71 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Links The Oyez Project, McNary v. Haitian Refugee Center., Inc., 498 U.S. 479 (1991).
www.oyez.org
Posted: Feb. 20, 1991
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  The Oyez Project, Sale, Acting Commissioner, Immigration And Naturalization Service v. Haitian Centers Council, Inc., 509 U.S. 155 (1993).
www.oyez.org
Posted: Jun. 21, 1993
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
92-6144 (U.S. Court of Appeals) 10/25/1993
IM-NY-0006-9003.pdf | Detail
92-6090 (U.S. Court of Appeals) 12/13/1993
IM-NY-0006-9001.pdf | Detail
92-6104 (U.S. Court of Appeals) 12/13/1993
IM-NY-0006-9002.pdf | Detail
93-6216 (U.S. Court of Appeals) 12/30/1993
IM-NY-0006-9005.pdf | Detail
1:92-cv-01258-SJ (E.D.N.Y.) 04/04/1994
IM-NY-0006-9000.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Opinion 03/27/1992 (789 F.Supp. 541) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0001.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 04/06/1992 (1992 WL 155853) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0007.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Opinion 06/10/1992 (969 F.2d 1326)
IM-NY-0006-0005.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 07/29/1992 (969 F.2d 1350)
IM-NY-0006-0006.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 11/12/1992 (807 F.Supp. 928) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0002.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 03/26/1993 (817 F.Supp. 336) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0003.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 06/08/1993 (823 F.Supp. 1028) (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0004.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 06/21/1993 (509 U.S. 155)
IM-NY-0006-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Opinion 06/23/1993 (509 U.S. 918)
IM-NY-0006-0009.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Judges Blackmun, Harry Andrew (Eighth Circuit, SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Cardamone, Richard J. (Second Circuit)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9002
Johnson, Sterling Jr. (E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0001 | IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9000
Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (Ninth Circuit, SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Mahoney, John Daniel (Second Circuit)
IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9002
Newman, Jon Ormond (Second Circuit, D. Conn.)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
O'Connor, Sandra Day (SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Pierce, Lawrence Warren (S.D.N.Y., FISC, Second Circuit)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9002
Pratt, George Cheney (Second Circuit, E.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Rehnquist, William Hubbs (SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Scalia, Antonin (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Souter, David Hackett (First Circuit, SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Stevens, John Paul (Seventh Circuit, SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Thomas, Clarence (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Walker, John Mercer Jr. (Second Circuit, S.D.N.Y.)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
White, Byron Raymond (SCOTUS)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Amar, Akhil Reed (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Aprahamian, Michael J. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Balogh, Ethan (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Barr, Michael S. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Bau, Ignatius (California)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Boyd, Graham A. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Brescia, Raymond H. (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Canas, Norma E. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Chander, Anupam (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Cleveland, Sarah H. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Curnin, Paul (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Daugaard, Lisa M. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Days, Drew S. III (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0005
Falkenstein, Eric (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Guttentag, Lucas (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9000 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9005
Kahn, Paul W. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Karkainnen, Bradley (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Klein, Jennifer (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Koh, Harold H. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0001 | IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-0008 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9002 | IM-NY-0006-9003 | IM-NY-0006-9005
Kronman, Anthony T. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Lobel, Jules L. (Pennsylvania)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0005
Lucht, Carroll L. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Marshall, Burke (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Rabinowitz, Judy (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Ratner, Michael (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0001 | IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9000 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9005
Ross, Jonathan (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Rubin, Robert J. (California)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9001
Sawyer, Susan (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0004
Schuck, Peter H. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Shende, Suzanne (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0004
Sonn, Paul K. (Connecticut)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Tringali, Joseph (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Defendant's Lawyers Begleiter, Bob (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9005
Bombaugh, Robert L. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0004
Cappuccio, Paul T. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0007
Carter, Zachary W. (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0004
Daly, John F. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9002
Dunn, Scott (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0001 | IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9000 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9002 | IM-NY-0006-9003 | IM-NY-0006-9005
Filppu, Lauri Steven (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Gerson, Stuart M. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-9001
Hausman, Allen W. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Hussey, Thomas W. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
King, Alice M. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Kline, David J. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004
Litman, Harry (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0007
Mahoney, Maureen E (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0008
Maier, Peter R. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Maloney, Andrew J (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0001 | IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006
Pazar, Charles (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002 | IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004
Radford, Emily Ann (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Sarko, Michele Y.F. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Schiffer, Stuart E. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0004
Schwarz, Norah Ascoli (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Shapiro, Ellen Sue (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0003 | IM-NY-0006-0004
Singer, Michael Jay (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9001 | IM-NY-0006-9003 | IM-NY-0006-9005
Starr, Kenneth Winston (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Stewart, Malcom L.. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0005 | IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-0007 | IM-NY-0006-9001
Torstenson, Karen Fletcher (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Valentine, Steven R. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
Walters, Mark C. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0002
White, Mary Jo (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0003
Wildes, Michael J. (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0007
Zener, Robert V. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0006
Other Lawyers Anker, Deborah E (Massachusetts)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Brown, Bartram S. (Illinois)
IM-NY-0006-9003
Fleet, Julian (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Helton, Arthur C. (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Hoffman, Paul L. (California)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
Katzenbach, Nicholas de B. (District of Columbia)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003
O'Sullivan, Maureen (Massachusetts)
IM-NY-0006-9003
Roth, Kenneth (New York)
IM-NY-0006-0006 | IM-NY-0006-9003

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