University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
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Case Name U.S. v. Michigan PC-MI-0007
Docket / Court G84-63 ( W.D. Mich. )
State/Territory Michigan
Case Type(s) Prison Conditions
Attorney Organization ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Case Summary
On January 18, 1984, the U.S. Attorney's Office and the Department of Justice filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Michigan against the Michigan Department of Corrections and other state officials under 42 U.S.C. §1983 and the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons ... read more >
On January 18, 1984, the U.S. Attorney's Office and the Department of Justice filed suit in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Michigan against the Michigan Department of Corrections and other state officials under 42 U.S.C. §1983 and the Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA), 42 U.S.C. §1997, alleging unconstitutional prison conditions. The United States sought injunctive relief to remedy the alleged Eighth Amendment violations.

Shortly after the lawsuit was filed, the parties entered into a consent decree, which included a compliance plan dealing with conditions of confinement such as medical and mental health care, fire safety, sanitation, hygiene, crowding and protection from harm. The District Court (Judge Richard Alan Enslen) appointed Special Master F. Warren Benton to oversee implementation of the plan on October 2, 1985. The District Court continued to issue various orders to ensure implementation of the consent decree, and on August 28, 1987, Judge Enslen granted the National Prison Project of the American Civil Liberties Union amicus status. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 116 F.R.D. 655 (W.D.Mich. 1987). On March 3, 1988, Judge Enslen held that a policy permitting use of food loaf as punishment even when the misconduct charge upon which that punishment was based had been dismissed violated due process rights. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 680 F.Supp. 270 (W.D.Mich. 1988). A helpful compilation of the opinions and orders issued in the case through July 1987 was published in U.S. v. State of Michigan, 680 F.Supp. 928 (W.D.Mich. 1988).

On July 2, 1991, after state defendants appealed orders issued by Judge Enslen to implement the consent decree, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (Judge Robert B. Krupansky) held that the District Court had abused its discretion. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 940 F.2d 143 (6th Cir. 1991). The Court of Appeals found that Judge Enslen had overly intruded upon Michigan's sovereignty. The Court of Appeals ordered Judge Enslen to not impose upon the state overly intrusive remedies for prison conditions but instead to exercise restraint and reason in performing the District Court's oversight responsibility.

The state defendants appealed a subsequent order by Judge Enslen denying the defendants' motion to dismiss portions of the consent decree. On March 4, 1994, the Court of Appeals (Judge James L. Ryan) upheld Judge Enslen's decision to dismiss only those portions of the consent decree where compliance had been achieved. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 18 F.3d 348 (6th Cir. 1994), cert. denied 513 U.S. 925 (1994). On August 7, 1995, the Court of Appeals (Judge Herbert Theodore Milburn) upheld various orders issued by Judge Enslen regarding the provision of mental health beds but held that the District Court lacked jurisdiction to modify its orders of September 1994 while those orders were on appeal. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 62 F.3d 1418 (6th Cir. 1995) (unpublished disposition).

Following passage of the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA), 18 U.S.C. §3626, the state defendants moved for immediate termination of the consent decree because no findings of liability were made in the case, as it was initially resolved by a consent decree. The state defendants also invoked the PLRA's automatic stay provision, to stay prospective relief. On July 3, 1996, the Court of Appeals ordered that the motion for immediate termination be denied, ruling that the termination motion was more properly addressed to the District Court. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 91 F.3d 145 (6th Cir. 1996) (unpublished table disposition). On the same date as the Court of Appeals decision, July 3, 1996, the District Court (Chief Judge Enslen) ordered that the District Court was incapable of reaching a decision on the motion to terminate before the automatic stay provision would take effect and further held that the automatic stay provision was unconstitutional. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 989 F.Supp. 853 (W.D.Mich. 1996). Thus, Chief Judge Enslen utilized a different PLRA provision, 18 U.S.C. §3626(b)(3), to hold that the automatic stay provision was not to take effect until further evidentiary hearings were conducted regarding the state defendants' motion to terminate.

On September 12, 1996, Chief Judge Enslen granted the plaintiff's discovery motion to conduct further fact-finding and stated that recent hearings revealed ongoing constitutional violations regarding the mental health care of inmates. The state defendants appealed this ruling, and on January 14, 1998, the Court of Appeals dismissed the appeal for lack of jurisdiction because the District Court's discovery order was not a final order nor was it property appealable as an interlocutory order. U.S. v. State of Michigan, 134 F.3d 745 (6th Cir. 1998) (per curiam). The Court of Appeals (Judge Karen Nelson Moore) then held in a related case on May 20, 1998, that the automatic stay provision of the PLRA was constitutional when construed to permit the District to retain its equitable power to suspend the stay in accordance with general equitable principles. Hadix v. Johnson, 144 F.3d 925 (6th Cir. 1998) (PC-MI-0003).

On February 3, 1999, Chief Judge Enslen granted the parties' joint motion to terminate the consent decree pursuant to the PLRA.

Tom Madison - 10/18/2006


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Crowding
Crowding / caseload
General
Bathing and hygiene
Fire safety
Food service / nutrition / hydration
Personal injury
Sanitation / living conditions
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Totality of conditions
Medical/Mental Health
Medical care, general
Mental health care, general
Plaintiff Type
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act (CRIPA), 42 U.S.C. § 1997 et seq.
42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) Charles Egeler Facility
Marquette Branch Prison
Michigan Reformatory
Parnall Correctional Facility
State Prison of Southern Michigan
Plaintiff Description United States Department of Justice
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1984 - 1999
Case Closing Year 1999
Case Ongoing Unknown
Case Listing PC-MI-0003 : Hadix v. Johnson (E.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0018 : Hadix v. Johnson (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0019 : Hadix v. Caruso (W.D. Mich.)
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Civil Rights Injunctions Over Time: A Case Study of Jail and Prison Court Orders
N.Y.U. Law Review
By: Margo Schlanger (Washington University)
Citation: 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 550 (2006)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Judicial Policy Making and the Modern State: How the Courts Reformed America's Prisons
By: Malcolm M. Feeley & Edward Rubin (UC Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law & Vanderbilt School of Law Faculty)
Citation: (1998)
[ Detail ]

Docket(s)
84-00063 (W.D. Mich.) 11/24/2003
PC-MI-0007-9000.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint 12/15/1983
PC-MI-0007-0001.pdf | Detail
Consent Decree 06/28/1984 (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0002.pdf | Detail
Brief in Support of Appointment of Special Master 07/05/1985
PC-MI-0007-0003.pdf | Detail
Response to Defendants Request for Modification of the State Plan 10/10/1986
PC-MI-0007-0004.pdf | Detail
Compilation of Opinions and Orders 07/27/1987 (680 F.Supp. 928) (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0020.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Opinion 08/28/1987 (116 F.R.D. 655) (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0019.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 03/03/1988 (680 F.Supp. 270) (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order 04/24/1989 (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0005.pdf | Detail
Order 11/06/1989 (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0006.pdf | Detail
Unpublished Opinion 04/04/1990 (899 F.2d 15)
PC-MI-0007-0024.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Order 05/01/1990 (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0007.pdf | Detail
Notice of Appeal 05/31/1990
PC-MI-0007-0008.pdf | Detail
Opinion 07/02/1991 (940 F.2d 143)
PC-MI-0007-0016.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Stipulation of Dismissal as to All Issues Except for Mental Health 04/29/1992
PC-MI-0007-0009.pdf | Detail
Joint Motion of the United States and the State of Michigan to Dismiss Portions of the Consent Decree 04/29/1992
PC-MI-0007-0010.pdf | Detail
Opinon 04/04/1994 (18 F.3d 348)
PC-MI-0007-0017.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum Decision 10/11/1994 (513 U.S. 925)
PC-MI-0007-0023.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Unpublished Opinion 08/07/1995 (62 F.3d 1418)
PC-MI-0007-0021.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Order 07/03/1996 (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0011.pdf | Detail
Order 07/03/1996 (91 F.3d 145)
PC-MI-0007-0022.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Opinion 01/14/1998 (134 F.3d 745)
PC-MI-0007-0018.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Press Release 02/04/1999
PC-MI-0007-0014.pdf | Detail
Judges Beckwith, Sandra Shank (S.D. Ohio)
PC-MI-0007-0021
Boggs, Danny Julian (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0016
Celebrezze, Anthony Joseph (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0016
Daughtrey, Martha Craig (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0018
Enslen, Richard Alan (W.D. Mich.)
PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0003 | PC-MI-0007-0004 | PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0007 | PC-MI-0007-0008 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0011 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-0022 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Guy, Ralph B. Jr. (Sixth Circuit, E.D. Mich., FISCR)
PC-MI-0007-0018 | PC-MI-0007-0022
Johnstone, Edward Huggins (W.D. Ky.)
PC-MI-0007-0017
Keith, Damon Jerome (E.D. Mich., Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0017
Krupansky, Robert B. (N.D. Ohio, Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0024
Milburn, Herbert Theodore (E.D. Tenn, Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0021 | PC-MI-0007-0024
Nelson, David Aldrich (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0018
Norris, Alan Eugene (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0021
Ryan, James Leo (Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0022
Suhrheinrich, Richard Fred (E.D. Mich., Sixth Circuit)
PC-MI-0007-0022
Thomas, William Kernahan (N.D. Ohio)
PC-MI-0007-0024
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Alexander, Elizabeth R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0003 | PC-MI-0007-0004 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Barnhart, Michael J. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Bennett, Larry W. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Campanelli, Richard (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001
Carle, Susan D. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017
Curry, John J. jr. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001
Dunne, John R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0016
Fette, William L. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0003 | PC-MI-0007-0004 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Flynn, David K. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0018
Gilman, Leonard R. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002
Guzman, Philip A. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Joyce, Patrick M. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0019
Lawrence, Paul S. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001
McElderry, Marie K. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0018
Nelson, Mellie H. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Payne, Timothy R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Peabody, Arthur E. Jr. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017
Reynolds, William Bradford (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Russell, Joann M. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0002
Smietanka, John A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0001 | PC-MI-0007-0002 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Smith, William French (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0001
Stark, Lisa J. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0017
Streeter, Patricia A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Weinstein, Laurie J. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0018 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Adams, Richard M.C. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0016
Barrick, Andrew J. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Cahill, John M. (California)
PC-MI-0007-0002
Friedman, Leo H. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Granholm, Jennifer M. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0014
Kelley, Frank J. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0008 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020
MacKenzie, Brian W. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020
McGehee, Donald S. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Moquin, Michael J. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0002
Nelson, Thomas C. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0019 | PC-MI-0007-0020 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Nickerson, Michael A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Przeko-Shaw, Susan (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0018
Przekop-Shaw, Susan (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0008 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0016 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-0018 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Quinn, Andrew D. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0002
Schmidt, Barbara A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0006 | PC-MI-0007-0009 | PC-MI-0007-0010 | PC-MI-0007-0017 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Steinborn, Stanley D. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Van Cleve, Janet A. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Ward, Lisa C. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Other Lawyers Aiyetoro, Adjoa A. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0005 | PC-MI-0007-0015 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Benton, F. Warren (New York)
PC-MI-0007-9000 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Blake, Patricia L. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0016
Dettmer, Michael Hayes (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000 | PC-MI-0007-9000
Gershal, Alan M. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-0017
Gowing, Delmer C. III (Florida)
PC-MI-0007-0017
Miaskoff, Carol R. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Pawlowski, George E. (Michigan)
PC-MI-0007-9000
Rosenbaum, Steven H. (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0017
Taifa-Caldwell, Nkechi (District of Columbia)
PC-MI-0007-0006

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