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Case Name Mayweathers v. Newland PC-CA-0016
Docket / Court 96-1582 ( E.D. Cal. )
State/Territory California
Case Type(s) Prison Conditions
Case Summary
On August 20, 1996, Muslim state prisoners housed at the California State Prison at Solano (Solano) filed a class action lawsuit against the California Department of Corrections under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco Division. The ... read more >
On August 20, 1996, Muslim state prisoners housed at the California State Prison at Solano (Solano) filed a class action lawsuit against the California Department of Corrections under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, San Francisco Division. The plaintiffs, representing themselves, asked the court for declaratory and injunctive relief, alleging that the defendants violated their First Amendment rights to free exercise of their religion, as well as their Fourteenth Amendment rights to Equal Protection of the law.

On August 23, 1996, the District Court (Judge Eugene F. Lynch) transferred the case to the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of California, Sacramento Division.

On October 31, 1996, the District Court (Magistrate Judge Gregory G. Hollows) denied the plaintiffs' request for appointment of counsel. On January 30, 1997, Judge Hollows issued his Report and Recommendation, recommending dismissing the action. Following plaintiffs' objections, Judge Hollows vacated his Report and Recommendation on April 11, 1997.

On June 25, 1997, Judge Hollows directed the clerk to send the file to the Civil Rights Clinic at U.C. Davis Law School, for possible representation of plaintiffs. On July 24, 1997, Judge Hollows ordered other related cases stayed, pending the outcome of this case and another case (2:97-cv-625).

The U.C. Davis clinic decided to take on the case, and entered an appearnce in October 1997.

On September 1, 1998, the Magistrate Judge Hollows recommended that the plaintiffs' class be certified as all present and future Muslim inmates at Solano. On October 19, 1998, the District Court (Judge Frank C. Damrell, Jr.) adopted Judge Hollows' recommendation in full, and granted class certification with respect to the equitable relief claims. The District Court, however, dismissed the plaintiffs' claims regarding their inability to purchase and possess religious oil and prayer beads.

After extended discovery, and settlement conferences in May and June of 2000, the parties settled four substantive issues and agreed upon an accelerated litigation process for two remaining issues. On June 5, 2000, the Magistrate Judge Hollows memorialized and confirmed the agreements reached. Under the Settlement Agreements, the defendants agreed to hire a full-time Muslim Chaplain, allow Muslims to special order religious oils, allow the Muslim community to wear religious headwear, make best efforts to ensure that a Muslim diet is available. The parties agreed to litigate the disputed issues of beards and attendance at Juma'ah services.

On July 31, 2000, the District Court (Judge Lawrence K. Karlton) granted the plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction with respect to allowing Jumu'ah attendance, but denied it on the issue of defendants' prohibition of beards. On December 19, 2000, the District Court (Judge Karlton) again granted a preliminary injunction allowing Jumu'ah attendance. After the second preliminary injunction expired, on April 5, 2001, the District Court issued a successive preliminary injunction. Mayweathers v. Terhune, 136 F. Supp. 2d 1152 (E.D. Cal. 2001). The defendants appealed.

On July 2, 2001, the District Court (Judge Karlton) denied the defendants' motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' claim under the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 (RLUIPA), 42 U.S.C. § 2000cc. The defendants appealed.

Significant litigation followed as to the District Court's preliminary injunctions. On August 2, 2001, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals (Judge Dorothy Wright Nelson) held that the District Court did not abuse its discretion when it renewed the preliminary injunction. Mayweathers v. Newland, 258 F.3d 920 (9th Cir. 2001).

From December 2001 to January 2003, the District Court issued various preliminary injunctions on the issues of inmate attendance at Jumu'ah services, beards and grooming.

On December 27, 2002, the Ninth Circuit (Judge Nelson) affirmed the District Court's denial of the defendants' motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' claim under RLUIPA on the grounds that it was unconstitutional. Mayweathers v. Newland, 314 F. 3d 1062 (9th Cir. 2002). The defendants' petitioned for a rehearing en banc. On January 27, 2003, the District Court (Judge Karlton) held that the status quo of the preliminary injunctions would be preserved, including automatic renewal every ninety days, during the appeals process. On October 6, 2003, the Supreme Court denied the defendants' petition for a writ of certiorari. Alameida v. Mayweathers, 540 U.S. 815 (2003).

On June 25, 2004, the District Court (Judge Karlton) granted the plaintiffs' motion for summary judgment and for a permanent injunction finding that the defendants' policies as to both grooming and attendance at Jumu'ah services violated RLUIPA. The District Court permanently enjoined defendants from issuing any discipline to inmates for attending Jumu'ah services or wearing half-inch beards for religious purposes. The Court ordered that the parties to meet and confer concerning the issue of expunging past inmate discipline records relating to the contested issues. Mayweathers v. Terhune, 328 F.2d 1086 (E.D. Cal. 2004).

The District Court awarded fees in the amount of $289,011 to plaintiffs' attorneys and taxed $23,675.38 in costs.

On September 6, 2006, the Ninth Circuit granted the defendants' motion to voluntary dismissal their appeal of the permanent injunction.

No further substantive action is noted on the PACER docket and the case was administratively closed.

Josh Altman - 11/04/2006


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
General
Disciplinary procedures
Religious programs / policies
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action Religious Freedom Rest. Act/Religious Land Use and Inst. Persons Act (RFRA/RLUIPA)
42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) California State Prison System
Plaintiff Description All present and future Muslim inmates at California State Penitentiary at Solano.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 2000 - n/a
Case Closing Year 2004
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Civil Rights Injunctions Over Time: A Case Study of Jail and Prison Court Orders
N.Y.U. Law Review
By: Margo Schlanger (Washington University)
Citation: 81 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 550 (2006)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ] [ External Link ]

  Judicial Policy Making and the Modern State: How the Courts Reformed America's Prisons
By: Malcolm M. Feeley & Edward Rubin (UC Berkeley Boalt Hall School of Law & Vanderbilt School of Law Faculty)
Citation: (1998)
[ Detail ]

Docket(s)
3:96-cv-02981-EFL (N.D. Cal.) 09/05/1996
PC-CA-0016-9001.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
96-1582 (E.D. Cal.) 07/24/2006
PC-CA-0016-9000.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Order 06/05/2000 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0001.pdf | Detail
Amended Order 07/28/2000 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0002.pdf | Detail
Order 12/15/2000 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0003.pdf | Detail
Order 04/05/2001 (136 F.Supp.2d 1152) (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order 07/02/2001 (2001 WL 804140 / 2001 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 22300) (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0017.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Reported Opinion 08/02/2001 (258 F.3d 930)
PC-CA-0016-0013.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order 12/13/2001 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0005.pdf | Detail
Order 02/08/2002 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0006.pdf | Detail
Order 03/26/2002 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0007.pdf | Detail
Order 04/25/2002 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0008.pdf | Detail
Order 09/12/2002 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0009.pdf | Detail
Order 11/01/2002 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0010.pdf | Detail
Opinion 12/27/2002 (314 F.3d 1062)
PC-CA-0016-0016.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order 01/15/2003 (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0011.pdf | Detail
Stipulation Re Preliminary Injunctions during pendency of review of the 9th Circuit's Decision; (Proposed) Order 01/27/2003
PC-CA-0016-0012.pdf | Detail
Opinion 10/06/2003 (540 U.S. 815)
PC-CA-0016-0018.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Order 06/25/2004 (328 F.Supp.2d 1086) (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0014.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Judges Damrell, Frank C. Jr. (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-9000
Hollows, Gregory G. (E.D. Cal.) [Magistrate]
PC-CA-0016-0001 | PC-CA-0016-9000
Karlton, Lawrence K. (E.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-0002 | PC-CA-0016-0003 | PC-CA-0016-0005 | PC-CA-0016-0006 | PC-CA-0016-0007 | PC-CA-0016-0008 | PC-CA-0016-0009 | PC-CA-0016-0010 | PC-CA-0016-0011 | PC-CA-0016-0012 | PC-CA-0016-0014 | PC-CA-0016-0015 | PC-CA-0016-0017 | PC-CA-0016-9000
Lynch, Eugene F. (N.D. Cal.)
PC-CA-0016-9001
Nelson, Dorothy Wright (Ninth Circuit)
PC-CA-0016-0013 | PC-CA-0016-0016
Rawlinson, Johnnie B. (D. Nev., Ninth Circuit)
PC-CA-0016-0013 | PC-CA-0016-0016
Schroeder, Mary Murphy (Ninth Circuit)
PC-CA-0016-0013 | PC-CA-0016-0016
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Christian, Susan Dee (California)
PC-CA-0016-9000
Mayweathers, Karluk M. (California)
PC-CA-0016-9001
Defendant's Lawyers Bowers, Jill Theresa (California)
PC-CA-0016-9000
Castro, Ismael A. (California)
PC-CA-0016-9000
Warwick, Tami M. (California)
PC-CA-0016-0012 | PC-CA-0016-0014 | PC-CA-0016-9000
Other Lawyers McCallum, Robert D. Jr. (District of Columbia)
PC-CA-0016-0016
Raab, Michael S. (District of Columbia)
PC-CA-0016-0016
Stern, Mark B. (District of Columbia)
PC-CA-0016-0016 | PC-CA-0016-9000
Vincent, John K. (California)
PC-CA-0016-0014 | PC-CA-0016-0016 | PC-CA-0016-9000

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