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Case Name Campbell v. McGruder JC-DC-0001
Docket / Court 1462-71 ( D.D.C. )
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) Jail Conditions
Special Collection Court-ordered receiverships
Attorney Organization ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Case Summary
On July 21, 1971, pre-trial detainees at the District of Columbia Jail filed a class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia against the mayor of the District of Columbia and jail officials. The complaint sought declaratory and injunctive relief for a long ... read more >
On July 21, 1971, pre-trial detainees at the District of Columbia Jail filed a class action lawsuit in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia against the mayor of the District of Columbia and jail officials. The complaint sought declaratory and injunctive relief for a long list of violations of the inmates' Fifth, Eighth, and Fourteenth Amendment Constitutional rights. These included overcrowding, inadequate food, denial of access to counsel, inadequate medical services, lack of contact with community, and lack of programs to allow inmates to maintain employment prior to trial. Plaintiffs were represented by attorneys of the Public Defender Service of the District of Columbia. In later proceedings, the plaintiffs were represented by the D.C. Prisoners' Legal Services Project, Inc.

In 1975 and 1976, the district court entered several orders enjoining conditions of confinement in the jail On March 21, 1975, the court (Judge William B. Bryant) ordered the jail to reduce overcrowding and implement procedures concerning the release of inmates prior to trial. On November 5, 1975, the Judge Bryant ordered the jail to direct local authorities to inspect the jail for health and safety violation, to provide clean clothing and linens, to provide pre-trial detainees with daily outdoor recreation and monthly medical exams, and to implement a new restraint policy. Campbell v. McGruder, 416 F. Supp. 100 (D.D.C. 1975). Judge Bryant entered another order addressing overcrowding on May 24, 1976. Campbell v. McGruder, 416 F. Supp. 111 (D.D.C. 1976). On March 30, 1978, the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit affirmed (Judge David L. Bazelon) these orders with respect to the issue of overcrowding and remanded the other orders for clarification. Campbell v. McGruder, 188 U.S. App. D.C. 258 (D.C. Cir. 1978). On remand, the court vacated the part of the previous orders that prohibited the practice of double celling and provided additional security and limits on when this practice occurred. Campbell v. McGruder, 554 F. Supp. 562 (D.D.C. 1982).

On July 13, 1985, the district court prohibited the jail from accepting any inmates until the population of the facility was reduced. In August 22, 1985, the parties reached a Stipulation to Reduce the Population of the DC Jail providing detailed guidelines for population reduction. On March 11, 1987, the court found the District of Columbia in contempt for failure to follow the order and stipulation.

In 1990, Judge Bryant ordered the jail to present a plan to improve health care conditions. On March 4, 1993, after the plaintiffs filed a motion for contempt, the district court ordered the defendants to immediately employ a psychologist and correctional officers trained in mental health care and develop chronic disease clinics within the jail. The defendants failed to comply with portions of this order and the district court (Judge Bryant) appointed a Special Officer. Based on the Special Officer's reports, the court found the defendants in contempt with regards to medical and mental health care. On March 16, 1994, the Special Officer presented a detailed plan to improve these conditions, which the district court ordered the defendants to implement. The court later appointed a Receiver to oversee the implementation of the plan. Over the following years, litigation continued regarding fees and contempt motions. Numerous progress reports were filed with the court.

On July 7, 2003, Judge Bryant granted a motion to dismiss the cases, terminating all injunctive relief pursuant to the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA). The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (per curium) affirmed this decision on March 9, 2004, finding that the plaintiffs failed to demonstrate a current constitutional violation as required by the PLRA. Campbell v. McGruder, 86 Fed. Appx. 426 (D.C. Cir. 2004).

Angela Heverling - 06/09/2007


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Content of Injunction
Receivership
Crowding
Crowding / caseload
General
Access to lawyers or judicial system
Bathing and hygiene
Food service / nutrition / hydration
Recreation / Exercise
Restraints : chemical
Restraints : physical
Sanitation / living conditions
Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)
Medical/Mental Health
Medical care, general
Mental health care, general
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. ยง 1983
Defendant(s) District of Columbia
Plaintiff Description Pre-trial detainees at the District of Columbia Jail.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU National (all projects)
ACLU National Prison Project
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1975 - 2004
Case Closing Year 2004
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing JC-DC-0002 : Inmates of D.C. Jail v. Jackson (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0010 : Battle v. D.C. (D.D.C.)
PC-DC-0010 : U.S. v. District of Columbia (D.D.C.)
Additional Resources
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Case Studies After Decision: Implementation of Judicial Decrees in Correctional Settings
Written: Oct. 01, 1977
By: M. Kay Harris & Dudley P. Spiller (Temple University)
Citation: (1977)
[ Detail ] [ PDF ]

Docket(s)
1:71-CV-01462-WBB-WBB (D.D.C.) 03/09/2004
JC-DC-0001-9000 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Stipulations -- Second Set New Detention Facility (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0082 PDF | Detail
Complaint for Injunction, Declaratory Judgment and Other Appropriate Relief 01/01/1971
JC-DC-0001-0085 PDF | Detail
Complaint for Injunction, Declaratory Judgment and Other Appropriate Relief 07/16/1971
JC-DC-0001-0001 PDF | Detail
Consent Order 11/10/1971 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0003 PDF | Detail
Amended Consent Order 01/11/1972 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0005 PDF | Detail
First Amended Complaint for Injunction, Declaratory Judgment and other Appropriate Relief 03/02/1972
JC-DC-0001-0002 PDF | Detail
Order 10/13/1972 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0007 PDF | Detail
SECOND AMENDED CONSENT ORDER 04/17/1974 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0009 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 03/21/1975 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0011 PDF | Detail
Order 05/20/1975
JC-DC-0001-0083 PDF | Detail
Stipulations Regarding D.C. Bar Jail Project 10/21/1975
JC-DC-0001-0013 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 11/05/1975 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0018 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 11/05/1975 (416 F.Supp. 100) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0087 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum Opinion 11/05/1975 (416 F.Supp. 106) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0089 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Proceedings on Remand 05/24/1976 (416 F.Supp. 111) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0090 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Judgment 03/30/1978
JC-DC-0001-0020 PDF | Detail
Opinion 03/30/1978 (580 F.2d 521)
JC-DC-0001-0091 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Findings of Fact 06/09/1980 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0022 PDF | Detail
Order 01/14/1981 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0024 PDF | Detail
Order 03/08/1982 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0026 PDF | Detail
Order & Memorandum 09/15/1982 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0084 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 10/08/1982 (554 F.Supp. 562) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0088 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum and Order 12/16/1982 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0030 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 06/27/1983 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0032 PDF | Detail
Order 09/30/1983 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0035 PDF | Detail
Memorandum Opinion 09/30/1983 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0036 PDF | Detail
Order 11/28/1983 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0037 PDF | Detail
Consent Order 02/03/1984 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0039 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 07/13/1985 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0041 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Order 07/15/1985 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0081 PDF | Detail
Memorandum in Support of Joint Motion to Amend the Stipulation and order of August 22, 1985 08/22/1985
JC-DC-0001-0045 PDF | Detail
Stipulation of the Parties to Reduce the Population at the D.C. Jail 08/22/1985
JC-DC-0001-0046 PDF | Detail
Order 09/09/1985 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0050 PDF | Detail
Joint Motion to Amend the Stipulation and order of August 22, 1985 11/01/1985
JC-DC-0001-0047 PDF | Detail
Order 03/11/1987 (1987 WL 8724) (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0093 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Order 09/26/1990 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0054 PDF | Detail
Order 03/04/1993 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0056 PDF | Detail
Order Appointing Special Officer 04/20/1993 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0058 PDF | Detail
Order 11/09/1993 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0060 PDF | Detail
Consent Order 03/16/1994 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0062 PDF | Detail
Notice of Filing 04/12/1994
JC-DC-0001-0064 PDF | Detail
Initial Remedial Plan for Mental Heath Care, Medical Care and Compliance Monitoring at the District of Columbia Jail 10/11/1994 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0066 PDF | Detail
Notice of Filing 12/16/1994
JC-DC-0001-0068 PDF | Detail
Order 01/27/1995 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0069 PDF | Detail
Findings and Order Appointing Receiver 07/11/1995 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0071 PDF | Detail
Order 08/03/1995 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0073 PDF | Detail
Order 08/28/1995 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0075 PDF | Detail
Order 10/05/1995 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0077 PDF | Detail
Consent Order 08/19/1997 (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0079 PDF | Detail
Beyond Community Standards and a Constitutional Level of Care? A Review of Services, Costs, and Staffing Levels at the Corrections Medical Receiver for the District of Columbia Jail 06/30/2000
JC-DC-0001-0086 PDF | Detail
Judgment 01/23/2004 (86 Fed.Appx. 426)
JC-DC-0001-0092 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Judges Bazelon, David L. (D.C. Circuit)
JC-DC-0001-0083 | JC-DC-0001-0091
Bryant, William Benson (D.D.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0003 | JC-DC-0001-0011 | JC-DC-0001-0018 | JC-DC-0001-0022 | JC-DC-0001-0024 | JC-DC-0001-0026 | JC-DC-0001-0030 | JC-DC-0001-0032 | JC-DC-0001-0035 | JC-DC-0001-0036 | JC-DC-0001-0037 | JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0041 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047 | JC-DC-0001-0050 | JC-DC-0001-0054 | JC-DC-0001-0056 | JC-DC-0001-0058 | JC-DC-0001-0060 | JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-0069 | JC-DC-0001-0071 | JC-DC-0001-0073 | JC-DC-0001-0075 | JC-DC-0001-0077 | JC-DC-0001-0079 | JC-DC-0001-0081 | JC-DC-0001-0084 | JC-DC-0001-0087 | JC-DC-0001-0088 | JC-DC-0001-0089 | JC-DC-0001-0090 | JC-DC-0001-0093 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Garland, Merrick B. (D.C. Circuit)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Henderson, Karen LeCraft (D.C. Circuit, D.S.C.)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Williams, Stephen Fain (D.C. Circuit)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Monitors/Masters Lopes, Grace Michele (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0066 | JC-DC-0001-0068
Plaintiff's Lawyers Bronstein, Alvin J. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Dean, Benjamin M. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-9000
Diaz, Teresa (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0062
Duggan, James E. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0085
Gannon , Jonathan Walter (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Hickey, J. Patrick (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0013 | JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047 | JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-0082 | JC-DC-0001-0087 | JC-DC-0001-0088 | JC-DC-0001-0089 | JC-DC-0001-0090 | JC-DC-0001-0091 | JC-DC-0001-0092 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Hilleboe, Douglas (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Lotke, Eric Robert (Virginia)
JC-DC-0001-9000
McClymont, Mary E. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
More, John H. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Ney, Steven (Maryland)
JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0045 | JC-DC-0001-0046 | JC-DC-0001-0047
Pittman, Shaw (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Smith, Jonathan Mark (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Axelrod, Jon P. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Barton, Richard W. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0091
Chernoff, Paul (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002 | JC-DC-0001-0003 | JC-DC-0001-0085
Flyer, David A. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0064
Goldfard, Ronald L. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Lefstein, Norman (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Lerner, Jacques Phillip (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-9000
Love, Richard Stuart (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0062 | JC-DC-0001-0064 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Miller, Nicholas Patrick (Maryland)
JC-DC-0001-9000
Neidrich, Thomas R. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0082 | JC-DC-0001-0087 | JC-DC-0001-0089 | JC-DC-0001-0090 | JC-DC-0001-0091
Nelson, Mollie (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0013
Payton, John A. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0064
Reischel, Charles L. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Risher, John R. Jr. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0091
Robbins, Louis P. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0091
Schwab, Edward E. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0088 | JC-DC-0001-0092 | JC-DC-0001-9000
Suda, John H. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0046
Sutton, David P. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0091
Taylor, William W. III (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0001 | JC-DC-0001-0002
Utiger, Robert C. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-9000
Wilson, Mary L. (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0092
Zielinski, Michael Edward (District of Columbia)
JC-DC-0001-0039 | JC-DC-0001-0064
Other Lawyers None on record

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