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Case Name Crum v. State Training School for Girls JI-AL-0002
Docket / Court 67-313 ( N.D. Ala. )
State/Territory Alabama
Case Type(s) Juvenile Institution
Case Summary
In approximately 1967, an unknown group of plaintiffs filed a class action lawsuit against three Alabama reform schools in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel from New York City, sought to desegregate the schools. On ... read more >
In approximately 1967, an unknown group of plaintiffs filed a class action lawsuit against three Alabama reform schools in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel from New York City, sought to desegregate the schools. On August 2, 1968, the Alabama District Court (Judge Clarence W. Allgood) ordered the Alabama Boys Industrial School and the State Training School for Girls, exclusively white institutions, to submit desegregation plans, which were approved on October 4, 1968. The third school, the Alabama Industrial School for Negro Children, was allowed one year in which to submit a plan. The plaintiffs appealed.

On appeal in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, the Court (Judge John Minor Wisdom) reversed the District Court's order and remanded with instructions. Crum v. State Training Sch. for Girls, 413 F.2d 1348 (5th Cir. 1969). The Court noted that reformatories fell under the desegregation requirements of Brown v. Bd. of Educ., citing a similar desegregation order in Maryland, State Bd. of Pub. Welfare v. Myers, 167 A.2d 765 (Md. 1961) (JI-MD-0002). Both desegregation plans submitted to the lower court were declared inadequate, as they provided for the admission of only four African American students to the boy's school, and general statements that African Americans would be accepted, at an undisclosed date, to the girl's school. Reasoning that the state has a duty to desegregate reform schools as well as public schools, on July 10, 1969, the Court ordered the three schools to submit one unified plan that would immediately provide for desegregation of both the student body and the faculty of each school. The plaintiffs were allowed to submit an alternate plan.

On remand, the Alabama District Court considered the plaintiffs' and the defendants' proposed plans. After several pre-trial conferences and an evidentiary hearing, the Court disapproved both plans, as neither complied with the requirements of an earlier case Alexander v. Holmes County, 396 U.S. 1218 (1969). On June 5, 1970, the Court ordered that the girls' school be closed and phased out, and further that the three schools be operated as a unitary system without racial discrimination. The Court instituted a plan which required that (1) the girls' school accept all girls between 12 and 18 years of age, regardless of race, on or after June 15, 1970; (2) the boys' school accept all boys between 12 and 14, and phase out all males 15 and over; (3) the Industrial School accept all males between 15 and 18 years; and (4) all three schools employ staff members without regard to race.

We have no further information about this case.

Stacey Jensen - 05/22/2006


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Affected Gender
Female
Male
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
Sex discrimination
General
Education
Racial segregation
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action None on record
Defendant(s) Alabama
Alabama Boys Industrial School
Alabama Industrial School for Negro Children
State Training School for Girls
Plaintiff Description unknown
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1970 - n/a
Case Closing Year 1970
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing JI-MD-0002 : State Board of Public Welfare v. Myers (State Court)
Docket(s)
No docket sheet currently in the collection
General Documents
Opinion 07/10/1969 (413 F.2d 1348)
JI-AL-0002-0002.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order 06/05/1970 (N.D. Ala.)
JI-AL-0002-0001.pdf | Detail
Judges Dyer, David William (Fifth Circuit, S.D. Fla., Eleventh Circuit)
JI-AL-0002-0001 | JI-AL-0002-0002
Krentzman, Isaac Benjamin Jr. (M.D. Fla.)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Wisdom, John Minor (Fifth Circuit)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Greenberg, Jack (New York)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Jones, Sheila Rush (New York)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Meltsner, Michael (New York)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Nabrit, James M. III (New York)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Newton, Demetrius C. (Alabama)
JI-AL-0002-0002
White, Franklin E. (New York)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Defendant's Lawyers Bishop, Maurice F. (Alabama)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Gallion, MacDonald (Alabama)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Hall, Leslie (Alabama)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Madison, Gordon (Alabama)
JI-AL-0002-0002
Other Lawyers None on record

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