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Case Name State of Texas v. United States IM-TX-0034
Docket / Court 1:14-cv-00254 ( S.D. Tex. )
State/Territory Texas
Case Type(s) Immigration
Case Summary
On December 3, 2014, in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, fourteen states (South Dakota, Louisiana, Alabama, Texas, West Virginia, Kansas, Georgia, Nebraska, Utah, Wisconsin, Montana, Idaho, South Carolina, and Indiana) and four governors (of Mississippi, Maine, North ... read more >
On December 3, 2014, in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas, fourteen states (South Dakota, Louisiana, Alabama, Texas, West Virginia, Kansas, Georgia, Nebraska, Utah, Wisconsin, Montana, Idaho, South Carolina, and Indiana) and four governors (of Mississippi, Maine, North Carolina, and Idaho) sued the U.S. government for violations of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) and the Take Care Clause of the U.S. Constitution, seeking injunctive and declaratory relief. The original plaintiffs were later joined in the suit by Arizona, Arkansas, Florida, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and the Attorney General of Michigan. The lawsuit claims that the President had "unilaterally suspend[ed] the immigration laws as applied to 4 million of the 11 million" illegal aliens in the United States.

Specifically, the plaintiffs challenged the executive's expansion of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) -- the deportation reprieve offered to undocumented immigrants who arrived in the U.S. as children -- and the creation of Deferred Action for Parents of Americans and Lawful Permanent Residents (DAPA) -- a temporary deportation reprieve for undocumented parents of U.S. citizens and lawful residents. They alleged that these executive actions amounted to an unlawful suspension of the nation's immigration laws, in violation of the Take Care Clause of the Constitution, and that the policies are arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion and were issued without regulatory authority or the required notice and opportunity for public comment, in violation of the APA. The case was assigned to District Judge Andrew S. Hanen.

Three Jane Does sought to intervene to defend the legality of DACA and DAPA. The Jane Does were aliens who had lived in the United States for more than ten years with minor children, seeking to benefit from the executive actions. But on February 11, 2015, Judge Hanen denied intervention. They appealed on March 9, 2015. On November 9, 2015, in an opinion by Circuit Judge Jennifer Walker Elrod, the Fifth Circuit reversed and remanded the case to the district court, holding that the Jane Does satisfied the necessary requirements for intervention. 805 F.3d 653 (5th Cir. 2015).

The program was set to take effect on February 18, but on February 16, 2015, Judge Hanen granted the plaintiffs' request for a preliminary injunction, holding that the U.S. had failed to comply with the APA. Finding that the administration's programs would impose major burdens on states, encourage illegal immigration and strain state budgets, and that the administration had not followed required procedures for changing Federal rules, the court enjoined the government from implementing the expansion of the deferred action program, which was to take effect on February 18, pending the final resolution of the case. 86 F. Supp. 3d 591, 677 (S.D. Tex. 2015).

On February 23, 2015, the U.S. appealed the district court's order to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. On the same day, the U.S. asked the district court to stay its order pending appeal to allow the expanded program to go into effect. In April, however, district court denied the stay; the government then sought a stay from the Fifth Circuit. After briefing and oral argument, a motions panel (Judges Jerry Smith, Jennifer Walker Elrod, and Stephen Higginson) denied the stay; an opinion by Judge Smith declared that the appeal was unlikely to succeed on its merits. Texas v. United States, 787 F.3d 733, 743 (5th Cir. 2015). Judge Higginson dissented. The appeal then proceeded before Judges Carolyn Dineen King, Jerry Smith, and Jennifer Walker Elrod. In another opinion by Judge Smith, the 5th Circuit affirmed the preliminary injunction on November 9, 2015, this time with a strong dissent by Judge King. The Court held that the states had standing; the matter was justiciable; the program should have been the subject of notice-and-comment rulemaking, and was in any event beyond the authority granted by the Immigration and Nationality Act; and that the states had satisfied the other elements required for an injunction (substantial threat of irreparable injury; balance of harms; public interest). Judge King dissented on all of these issues. 809 F.3d 134 (5th Cir. 2015).

The U.S. sought certiorari review in the Supreme Court in a petition filed just a few days later, on November 20, 2015: the speedy petition was to try to enable the Court to complete review of the case before the end of the 2015 term (that is, by the end of June 2016). On January 20, 2016, the Court granted review. The case was argued in the Supreme Court on April 18, 2016, two months after the death of Justice Antonin Scalia. The Supreme Court was 4-4 on the issue, so on June 23, 2016, the Court issued a per curiam order affirming the Fifth Circuit without opinion.

Back in the District Court, on May 19, 2016, Judge Hanen addressing alleged misconduct by DOJ lawyers ordered all the DOJ lawyers admitted to practice in any of the plaintiff states to take a continuing legal education program centered around ethics, led by non-DOJ teachers. The Court also stated that due to the conduct of the lawyers, it would seek to revoke the pro hac vice status of the out-of-state lawyers who had appeared before it. Finally, the Court ordered the DOJ to provide the court with a list of all the DACA applicants so he could consider giving that list to the plaintiff states. This list would have included tens of thousands of immigrant youths who received three–year grants of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) between November 2014 and February 2015. (The alleged misconduct occurred when DOJ lawyers told the court that the new DACA/DAPA programs were not being implemented. In fact, as they later informed the court, most of the new provisions were, indeed stayed, but DHS had begun to grant 3-year extensions of DACA status, rather than the prior program’s 2-year extensions.)

The United States immediately sought a stay in the district court, and a stay and mandamus in the Court of Appeals. On June 7, 2016, Judge Hanen stayed his own address disclosure and ethics order; he scheduled a status conference for August 22, and gave the U.S. until July 31, 2016 to file its proposal of an appropriate sanction for the conduct his May 19 order declared unethical.

Rebecca Eisenbrey - 03/10/2015
- 11/20/2015
Matt Ramirez - 06/25/2016


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief granted
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
General
Family reunification
Immigration
Deportation - criteria
Deportation - judicial review
Employment
Family
Status/Classification
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
Work authorization - criteria
Work authorization - procedures
National Origin/Ethnicity
Hispanic
Plaintiff Type
State Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Defendant(s) Department of Homeland Security
The United States of America
U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services
U.S. Customs and Border Protection
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Plaintiff Description Twenty-two states, one state AG, and four governors.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 2015 - n/a
Case Closing Year n/a
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Threats to the Future of the Immigration Class Action
Washington University Journal of Law and Policy
By: Jill E. Family (Widener University School of Law)
Citation: 27 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol'y 71 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:14-cv-254 (S.D. Tex.) 06/08/2016
IM-TX-0034-9000.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief 12/03/2014
IM-TX-0034-0001.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief 12/09/2014
IM-TX-0034-0002.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction 12/24/2014
IM-TX-0034-0006.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Exhibits to Defendants' Memorandum of Points and Authorities in Opposition to Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction 12/24/2014
IM-TX-0034-0007.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order of Temporary Injunction 02/16/2015 (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0003.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order 02/16/2015 (2015 WL 648579) (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0004.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order 04/07/2015 (2015 WL 1540152) (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0010.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 04/07/2015 (2015 WL 1540022) (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0011.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brief of Jane Does 1-3 as Amicus Curiae in Support of Appellants, Supporting Reversal 04/16/2015
IM-TX-0034-0005.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion 05/26/2015 (787 F.3d 733)
IM-TX-0034-0015.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion 11/09/2015 (809 F.3d 134)
IM-TX-0034-0008.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion 11/09/2015 (805 F.3d 653)
IM-TX-0034-0014.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Petition for a Writ of Certiorari 11/20/2015
IM-TX-0034-0009.pdf | Detail
USCA Opinion 02/12/2016 (808 F.3d 675)
IM-TX-0034-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
USCA Opinion 04/19/2016
IM-TX-0034-0013.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum Opinion and Order 05/19/2016 (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0016.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
On Writ of Certiorari to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit 06/23/2016
IM-TX-0034-0017.pdf | Detail
Document Source: Supreme Court website
Judges Davis, W. Eugene (W.D. La., Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0013
Elrod, Jennifer Walker (Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0014 | IM-TX-0034-0015
Hanen, Andrew S. (S.D. Tex.)
IM-TX-0034-0003 | IM-TX-0034-0004 | IM-TX-0034-0010 | IM-TX-0034-0011 | IM-TX-0034-0016 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Higginbotham, Patrick Errol (N.D. Tex., Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0012 | IM-TX-0034-0013
Higginson, Stephen Andrew (Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0015
Jolly, E. Grady (Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0013
King, Carolyn Dineen (Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0008
Owen, Priscilla Richman (Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0012
Smith, Jerry Edwin (Fifth Circuit)
IM-TX-0034-0008 | IM-TX-0034-0012 | IM-TX-0034-0015
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Abbott, Greg (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Barker, John Campbell (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Bitter, Adam Nicholas (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Blacklock, James D. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Bondi, Pamela Jo (Florida)
IM-TX-0034-0002
Bruning, Jon (Nebraska)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Caldwell, James David (Louisiana)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Carswell, Dwight (Kansas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Chapelle, Joseph C. (Indiana)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Colmenero, Angela Veronica (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
D'Andrea, Arthur C. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
DeWine, Michael (Ohio)
IM-TX-0034-0002
Fox, Timothy C. (Montana)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Hodge, Daniel T. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Horne, Thomas C. (Arizona)
IM-TX-0034-0002
Hudson, Eric Alan (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Jackley, Marty J. (South Dakota)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Keller, Scott A. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Lennington, Daniel P (Wisconsin)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Lopez, David A. (Nebraska)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Margulies, Peter (Rhode Island)
IM-TX-0034-9000 | IM-TX-0034-9000
McDaniel, Dustin (Arkansas)
IM-TX-0034-0002
McLean, Carlisle (Maine)
IM-TX-0034-0001
Mitchell, Jonathan F. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Morrisey, Patrick (West Virginia)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Murphy, Eric E (Ohio)
IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Oldham, Andrew S. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Olens, Samuel (Georgia)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Perry, Thomas C (Idaho)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Post, Ryan S (Nebraska)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Pruitt, E. Scott (Oklahoma)
IM-TX-0034-0002
Reyes, Sean D. (Utah)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Rusthoven, Peter J (Indiana)
IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Schmidt, Derek (Kansas)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Schuette, Bill (Michigan)
IM-TX-0034-0002
Snyder, Drew (Michigan)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Stenehjem, Wayne (North Dakota)
IM-TX-0034-0002
Stephens, Robert C. (North Carolina)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Strange, Luther J (Alabama)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Van Hollen, J.B. (Wisconsin)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Wasden, Lawrence G. (Idaho)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Wilson, Alan (South Carolina)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002
Wyrick, Patrick (Oklahoma)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Younger, Cally Ann (Idaho)
IM-TX-0034-0001 | IM-TX-0034-0002 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Defendant's Lawyers Brinkmann, Beth S (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Bunnell, Stevan (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Clair, Jeffrey (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Cohen, Bradley H. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Freeny, Kyle Renee (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0006 | IM-TX-0034-0007 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Gilligan, James J (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Hartnett, Kathleen R. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Havemann, William Ernest (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Hu, Daniel David (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Kirschner, Adam D. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Kneedler, Edwin S. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Letter, Douglas (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
McIntosh, Scott R. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Mizer, Benjamin C. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Ricketts, Jennifer (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Schwei, Daniel (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Tripp, Zachary D. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Tyler, John Russell (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Verrilli, Donald B. Jr. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-0009
Other Lawyers Badlani, Chirag (Illinois)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Dearing, Richard (New York)
IM-TX-0034-9000
DeNeve, Jose Jorge (California)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Egeler, Anne Elizabeth (Washington)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Herren, Mitchell Lee (Kansas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Hethmon, Michael M. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
KohSweeney, Adam P (California)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Markoff, Gabriel (California)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Martinez, Antonio Tony (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Moseley, Jonathon Alden (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Olson, Leif A. (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Perales, Nina (Texas)
IM-TX-0034-0005 | IM-TX-0034-9000
Sekulow, Jay Alan (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Shapiro, Ilya (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Smith, Linda Jane (California)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Taitz, Orly (California)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Weissglass, Jonathan (California)
IM-TX-0034-9000
Wilcox, Dale L. (District of Columbia)
IM-TX-0034-9000

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