University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
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Case Name DeBoer v. Snyder PB-MI-0004
Docket / Court 2:12-cv-10285-BAF-MJH ( E.D. Mich. )
State/Territory Michigan
Case Type(s) Public Benefits / Government Services
Special Collection Same-Sex Marriage
Attorney Organization GLAD
Case Summary
On January 23, 2012, a same-sex couple, individually and on behalf of their three adopted children, filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, against the State of Michigan. The case proceeded under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, and began by challenging the Michigan law ... read more >
On January 23, 2012, a same-sex couple, individually and on behalf of their three adopted children, filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, against the State of Michigan. The case proceeded under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, and began by challenging the Michigan law preventing adoption by unmarried parents. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel (including a professor at Wayne State law school), asked the court for both declaratory and injunctive relief. Specifically, the plaintiffs asked the court to declare that the provisions of MCL 710.24, which prohibits second parent adoptions by unmarried persons, violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Accordingly, the plaintiffs argued, the court should prohibit judges in Michigan from blocking second-parent adoptions based on the unmarried status of the couple.

The case was assigned to Judge Bernard Friedman. News reports recount that on August 29, 2012, at a hearing on the State's motion to dismiss, he encouraged the plaintiffs to broaden their case to challenge, as well, the Michigan Marriage Amendment, which prohibits same-sex couples from marrying. Mich. Const. 1963, art. 1, § 25. He gave them 10 days to decide whether to file an amended complaint addressing this issue. They did file such an amended complaint on September 7, 2012, adding a claim that under the federal Constitution, the state must permit the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples.

On September 24, 2012, Judge Friedman granted the formal motion to amend, and then denied pending motions to dismiss and for summary judgment as moot. The state renewed its motion to dismiss, but the District Court denied it on July 1, 2013, based on the Supreme Court's decision the prior week in United States v. Windsor, 570 U.S. 12 (2013). Both plaintiffs and defendants then filed motions for summary judgment.

In his opinion denying the motions on October 16, 2013, Judge Friedman explained that the State was proposing several justifications in support of Michigan's exclusive recognition of heterosexual marriages: "(1) providing children with 'biologically connected' role models of both genders that are necessary to foster healthy psychological development; (2) forestalling the unintended consequences that would result from the redefinition of marriage; (3) tradition or morality; and (4) promoting the transition of 'naturally procreative relationships into stable unions.'" These depended on facts that needed to be presented and contested at trial, he held.

The trial occurred over 8 days in February and March 2014. On Friday, March 21, 2014, Judge Friedman ruled for the plaintiffs, finding that the Michigan Marriage Amendment violated the federal Equal Protection Clause, and entering an injunction against the ban on same-sex marriage. 973 F.Supp.2d 757.

The state immediately sought a stay in the Sixth Circuit. Because Judge Friedman's order was docketed after 5 pm on Friday, it appears that the state's county clerks offices were already closed. Several county clerks' offices (Washtenaw, Ingham, Oakland, Muskegon) were open and issuing marriage licenses on Saturday, March 22; the statutory three-day waiting period is frequently waived in Michigan, and was waived by some county clerks' offices. The first wedding took place at 8 am, in Ingham County. The district court's injunction was stayed that afternoon by the 6th Circuit; the motions panel soon extended the stay to last until the case is resolved on appeal. However, on March 28, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder announced that the federal government would recognize the marriages that took place on March 22.

The defendants appealed to the 6th Circuit Court of Appeals on May 9th, 2014. On November 6, 2014, the Sixth Circuit ruled on this and other cases from four states. Obergefell v. Hodges (PB-OH-0003 in this Clearinghouse). Henry v. Hodges (PB-OH-0004 in this Clearinghouse). Love v. Beshear (PB-KY-0001 in this Clearinghouse). Tanco v. Haslam (PB-TN-0005 in this Clearinghouse). It was unwilling to find a Constitutional basis to deny states' authority to define marriage. On the Due Process and Equal Protection claims raised in this case, the court found that it was bound by Supreme Court precedent in Baker v. Nelson, 191 N.W.2d 185 (Minn. 1971), which it found not overruled by Windsor nor by "doctrinal developments". It found that the bans were plausibly rational, and neither in violation of the Constitution nor due to illegal animus or discrimination. It also held that "[i]f it is constitutional for a State to define marriage as a relationship between a man and a woman, it is also constitutional for the State to stand by that definition with respect to couples married in other States or countries." (DeBoer v. Snyder Page p. 38). Accordingly, the Sixth Circuit upheld the same-sex marriage bans in Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and Tennessee. 772 F.3d 388.

The Supreme Court granted certiorari review of all the 6th Circuit cases on Jan. 16, 2015. Bourke v. Beshear, 135 S. Ct. 1041 (2015). The Court rephrased the questions presented as: 1) Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to license marriage between two people of the same sex? 2) Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex when their marriage was lawfully licensed and performed out-of-state?

On June 26, 2015, the Court reversed, in an opinion by Justice Kennedy. The right to marry is fundamental, the Court held, and it demeans gay and lesbian couples to deprive them of access to marriage. The 14th Amendment therefore does not allow states to ban same-sex marriage. Kennedy was joined without further writing by Justices Ginsburg, Breyer, Kagan, and Sotomayor. Each of the four dissenters--Chief Justice Roberts, and Justices Scalia, Thomas, and Alito--wrote a dissent.

Carlyn Williams - 10/16/2013
Nadji Allan - 11/12/2014


compress summary

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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Affected Gender
Female
Male
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Discrimination Prohibition
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
Sexual orientatation
General
Adoption
Disparate Treatment
Gay/lesbian/transgender
Marriage
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) County Clerk
State of Michigan
Plaintiff Description Same-sex couple challenging Michigan laws prohibiting second parent adoption by unmarried persons and the Michigan Marriage Amendment prohibiting same-sex couples from marrying.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations GLAD
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 2015 - n/a
Case Closing Year n/a
Case Ongoing Yes
Case Listing PB-MI-0008 : Morgan v. Snyder (W.D. Mich.)
PB-OH-0003 : Obergefell v. Hodges (S.D. Ohio)
PB-OH-0004 : Henry v. Wymyslo (S.D. Ohio)
PB-KY-0001 : Love v. Beshear (W.D. Ky.)
PB-TN-0005 : Tanco v. Haslam (M.D. Tenn.)
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Limited Partnership
http://www.limitedpartnershipmovie.com/
By: Thomas G. Miller
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  United States Government says L.A. Gay Couple’s 1975 Marriage is Valid
The Pride L.A.
Written: Jun. 07, 2016
By: Troy Masters
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
2:12-CV-10285-BAF-MJH (E.D. Mich.) 06/02/2014
PB-MI-0004-9000 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
14-1341 (U.S. Court of Appeals) 08/06/2014
PB-MI-0004-9001 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Adoption and Co-parenting of Children by Same-sex Couples 11/01/2002
PB-MI-0004-0016 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Deposition of Loren Dean Marks 10/30/2009
PB-MI-0004-0019 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief 01/23/2012
PB-MI-0004-0001 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of April Deboer Under 28 USC §1746 03/09/2012
PB-MI-0004-0010 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of Wendy Deboer Under 28 USC §1746 03/09/2012
PB-MI-0004-0012 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of Jayne Rowse Under 28 USC §1746 03/10/2012
PB-MI-0004-0011 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of Kathi Nelson, M.S.W., L.M.S.W, Under 28 USC §1746 03/12/2012
PB-MI-0004-0014 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of Jeanne A. Howard, Ph.D. Under 28 USC §1746 03/12/2012
PB-MI-0004-0015 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment Pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 56 03/19/2012
PB-MI-0004-0009 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of Cynthia Bostwick Under 28 USC §1746 03/19/2012
PB-MI-0004-0013 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief 09/07/2012
PB-MI-0004-0002 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Amended Complaint for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief 09/07/2012
PB-MI-0004-0017 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Granting Plaintiffs' Motion for Leave to File an Amended Complaint, Denying Defendants' Motion to Dismiss the Complaint and Denying Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment 09/24/2012 (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0004-0003 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order Denying Defendants' Motion to Dismiss the Amended Complaint 07/01/2013 (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0004-0004 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Declaration of Jeanne A. Howard, Ph.D. Under 28 USC §1746 [2nd Declaration] 09/09/2013
PB-MI-0004-0018 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order Denying Cross-Motions for Summary Judgment 10/16/2013 (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0004-0005 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 1 - AM Session 02/25/2014
PB-MI-0004-0020 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 1 02/25/2014
PB-MI-0004-0030 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 2 -- AM Session 02/26/2014
PB-MI-0004-0021 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 3 02/27/2014
PB-MI-0004-0022 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 4 02/28/2014
PB-MI-0004-0026 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 3 03/03/2014
PB-MI-0004-0023 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 5 - Part B 03/03/2014
PB-MI-0004-0028 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Transcript] 03/03/2014
PB-MI-0004-0031 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 6 - AM Session 03/04/2014
PB-MI-0004-0024 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Transcript] 03/04/2014
PB-MI-0004-0032 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 7 03/05/2014
PB-MI-0004-0027 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
[Transcript] 03/05/2014
PB-MI-0004-0033 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 8 03/06/2014
PB-MI-0004-0025 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Volume 9 03/07/2014
PB-MI-0004-0029 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law 03/21/2014 (973 F.Supp.2d 757) (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0004-0006 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Temporarily Staying District Court's Judgment] 03/22/2014
PB-MI-0004-0034 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion {Response to Michigan's Stay Motion} 03/25/2014
PB-MI-0004-0008 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Arguing that a Stay is not Warranted] 03/25/2014
PB-MI-0004-0035 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Statement by Attorney General Eric Holder on Federal Recognition of Same-Sex Marriages in Michigan 03/28/2014
PB-MI-0004-0007 PDF | Detail
Brief for Michigan Defendants-Appellants 05/07/2014
PB-MI-0004-0036 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiffs' Appellees Brief on Appeal 06/09/2014
PB-MI-0004-0037 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion of the Sixth Circuit 11/06/2014 (772 F.3d 388)
PB-MI-0004-0039 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | External Link | Detail
Document Source: U.S. Court of Appeals website
Supreme Court Opinion 06/26/2015 (135 S.Ct. 2584)
PB-MI-0004-0040 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: Supreme Court website
Judges Alito, Samuel A. Jr. (Third Circuit, SCOTUS)
PB-MI-0004-0040
Caldwell, Karen K. (E.D. Ky.)
PB-MI-0004-0035
Cook, Deborah L. (Sixth Circuit)
PB-MI-0004-0039
Daughtrey, Martha Craig (Sixth Circuit)
PB-MI-0004-0039
Friedman, Bernard A. (E.D. Mich.)
PB-MI-0004-0002 | PB-MI-0004-0003 | PB-MI-0004-0004 | PB-MI-0004-0005 | PB-MI-0004-0006 | PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Hluchaniuk, Michael J. (E.D. Mich.) [Magistrate]
PB-MI-0004-9000
Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (Ninth Circuit, SCOTUS)
PB-MI-0004-0040
Roberts, John Glover Jr. (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS)
PB-MI-0004-0040
Rogers, John M. (Sixth Circuit)
PB-MI-0004-0008 | PB-MI-0004-0035
Scalia, Antonin (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS)
PB-MI-0004-0040
Sutton, Jeffrey S. (Sixth Circuit)
PB-MI-0004-0039
Thomas, Clarence (D.C. Circuit, SCOTUS)
PB-MI-0004-0040
White, Helene N. (Sixth Circuit)
PB-MI-0004-0008 | PB-MI-0004-0035
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Block, Joshua A (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Bonauto, Mary L. (Massachusetts)
PB-MI-0004-9000
Cooper, Leslie (New York)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Henry, Vickie L. (Massachusetts)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Mogill, Kenneth M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0002 | PB-MI-0004-0009 | PB-MI-0004-0017 | PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-0037 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Nessel, Dana M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0001 | PB-MI-0004-0002 | PB-MI-0004-0009 | PB-MI-0004-0017 | PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-0037 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Sedler, Robert A. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0001 | PB-MI-0004-0002 | PB-MI-0004-0009 | PB-MI-0004-0017 | PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-0037 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Stanyar, Carole M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0001 | PB-MI-0004-0002 | PB-MI-0004-0009 | PB-MI-0004-0017 | PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-0037 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Defendant's Lawyers Brya, Michelle M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Bullard, Bill Jr. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000
Heyse, Kristin M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-0036 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Jeter, Tonya C. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Johnson, Andrea J. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Lerminiaux, Keith J. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000
Lindstrom, Aaron D. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0036 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Pitt, Michael L. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Potchen, Joseph E. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000
Rivers, Beth M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0020 | PB-MI-0004-0021 | PB-MI-0004-0022 | PB-MI-0004-0023 | PB-MI-0004-0024 | PB-MI-0004-0025 | PB-MI-0004-0026 | PB-MI-0004-0027 | PB-MI-0004-0028 | PB-MI-0004-0029 | PB-MI-0004-0030 | PB-MI-0004-0031 | PB-MI-0004-0032 | PB-MI-0004-0033 | PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Schuette, Bill (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-0036
Other Lawyers Anderson, Christy L. (Colorado)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Bartel, Sara (California)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Boccuzzi, Carmine Daniel (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Bowser, Joseph Paul (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Bristow, Kyle James (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Campbell, James A. (Arizona)
PB-MI-0004-9000
Carter, Hunter Thompson (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Carter, George David Jr. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Davis, Andrew (California)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Dewart, Deborah Jane (North Carolina)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Dushku, Alexander (Utah)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Ellsworth, Felicia H. (Massachusetts)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Esbeck, Carl H. (Missouri)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Fisher, Thomas M. (Indiana)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Fleming, Mark C. (Massachusetts)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Gallagher, Sean (Colorado)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Gerhardstein, Alphonse A. (Ohio)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Gershel, Alan (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Goldberg, Suzanne B. (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Greenberger, Marcia D. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Gunnarson, R. Shawn (Utah)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Hamid, Jyotin R. (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Holder, Eric H. Jr. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-0007
Joseph, Lawrence J (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Joyce, Stephanie A. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Kaplan, Jay (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000
Lane, Daniel McNeel (Texas)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Linton, Paul Benjamin (Illinois)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Man, Christopher (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Mar, Ria Tabacco (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Martin, Emily J. (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
McAlister, Mary Elizabeth (Virginia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Mersino, Erin Elizabeth (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Miller, Jonathan B. (Massachusetts)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Mishra, Dina Bernick (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Moon, Jeffrey Hunter (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Moses, Michael F. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
O'Donnell, Nicholas M. (Massachusetts)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Olson, William J. (Virginia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Pepping, Matthew (Texas)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Phillis, Nicole Susan (California)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Picarello, Anthony R Jr (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Raimi, Diana (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Rassbach, Eric C (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Rheaume, Thomas J. Jr. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Robinson, David A. (Connecticut)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Rome, Joseph Benjamin (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Roth, Jerome Cary (California)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Schoenfeld, Alan E. (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Shatz, Benjamin G. (California)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Smith, Paul M. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Soubly, Diane M. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000 | PB-MI-0004-9001
Staver, Mathew D. (Florida)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Staver, Anita L (Florida)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Steinberg, Michael J. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9000
Stetson, Catherine E. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Strand, Sherri C. (Missouri)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Strangio, Chase (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Trachtman, Jeffery S (New York)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Tsai, Rocky C. (California)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Walsh, James J. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Walta, Jason (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Weisel, Jessica (Texas)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Whitlock, Michael Louis (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Wierenga, James R. (Michigan)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Wolfson, Paul Reinherz (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001
Wydra, Elizabeth B. (District of Columbia)
PB-MI-0004-9001

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