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Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
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Case Name Gonzalez v. State of Arizona VR-AZ-0052
Docket / Court 2:06-cv-01268-ROS ( D. Ariz. )
State/Territory Arizona
Case Type(s) Election/Voting Rights
Attorney Organization ACLU National (all projects)
Lawyers Comm. for Civil Rights Under Law
MALDEF
Case Summary
On May 9, 2006, a group of Latino voters filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona against the state of Arizona. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel, MALDEF, the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, and the ACLU Voting Rights Project, brought suit ... read more >
On May 9, 2006, a group of Latino voters filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona against the state of Arizona. The plaintiffs, represented by private counsel, MALDEF, the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, and the ACLU Voting Rights Project, brought suit under the Voting Rights Act, the NVRA, the Civil Rights Act of 1957/1960, 42 U.S. §1983, and state law and asked for declaratory and injunctive relief. Plaintiffs alleged that they were denied the right to vote by Arizona's Proposition 200 after they did not provide adequate documentary proof that they were U.S. citizens.

Plaintiffs' argument mainly focused on their claim that the NVRA preempted Proposition 200 because, under the NVRA, individuals need not present proof of citizenship at the time they register to vote using the federal form. On June 19, 2006, the District Court (Judge Roslyn Silver) denied the plaintiffs' motion for a preliminary injunction, finding that it was unlikely that the plaintiffs would win on the merits (435 F.Supp.2d 997).

On August 2, 2006, Judge Silver granted a motion to consolidate the case with the case of Navajo Nation v. Brewer (3:06-cv-01575) (2006 WL 2246365). Navajo Nation dealt with similar issues, with the plaintiffs being Native Americans who were similarly denied the right to vote under Proposition 200. Earlier, on June 6, 2006, the case Inter Tribal Council of Arizona v. Brewer (3:06-cv-01362) had also been consolidated with this case.

On September 11, 2006, Judge Silver again denied a motion for a preliminary injunction filed by each of the three sets of plaintiffs (2006 WL 3627297). This time, the plaintiffs attempted to argue that the additional material required by Proposition 200 amounted to a poll tax and violated Equal Protection. Judge Silver was unmoved by this argument as well. This decisions was upheld by the Ninth Circuit (485 F.3d 1041).

After the 2006 election, the case moved beyond the preliminary injunction phase. Judge Silver granted summary judgment on behalf of the defendants, but that grant was overturned by the Ninth Circuit. Although the Ninth Circuit upheld that the law did not constitute a poll tax and did not violate the Voting Rights Act, it did hold that Congress' authority under the NVRA did supersede Arizona's authority under Proposition 200 and the plaintiffs should be successful in their challenge to the law (624 F.3d 1162). Therefore, Arizona's requirement that prospective voters show additional identification could not stand.

A request to rehear the case en banc was granted (649 F.3d 953), but the rehearing en banc produced the same holdings (677 F.3d 383). The Supreme Court granted certiorari (133 S.Ct. 476).

On June 17, 2013, the Supreme Court upheld the Ninth Circuit's decision, holding that the Motor Voter Act preempted Arizona's identification requirements (570 U.S. ____). The Court upheld earlier decisions that the "Time, Place and Manner" clause of the Constitution also applied to registration for Congressional elections.

Jonathan Forman - 06/17/2013


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Federalism
Content of Injunction
Preliminary relief denied
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
National origin discrimination
General
Voting
Voting access
National Origin/Ethnicity
Hispanic
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Voting
Voter id
Voter qualifications
Voter registration rules
Causes of Action Voting Rights Act, unspecified, 42 U.S.C § 1973 et seq.
Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d et seq.
State law
National Voter Registration Act ("Motor Voter law"), 42 U.S.C. § 1973gg
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Civil Rights Act of 1957/1960, 42 U.S.C. § 1971
42 U.S.C. § 1983
Defendant(s) State of Arizona
Plaintiff Description Five Latinos denied the right to vote by Arizona's Proposition 200 after they did not provide adequate documentary proof that they were U.S. citizens, as well as five Latino advocacy groups. In consolidated cases, the Hopi Tribe, on behalf of tribe members denied the right to vote for the same reason, and the Navajo Nation, on behalf of tribe members denied the right to vote for the same reason.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations ACLU National (all projects)
Lawyers Comm. for Civil Rights Under Law
MALDEF
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Attorneys fees
Declaratory Judgment
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 2012 - n/a
Case Closing Year n/a
Case Ongoing Yes
Docket(s)
3:06−cv−01362 (D. Ariz.) 08/20/2008
VR-AZ-0052-9001.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
3:06−cv−01575 (D. Ariz.) 08/20/2008
VR-AZ-0052-9002.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
2:06−cv−01268 (D. Ariz.) 02/21/2013
VR-AZ-0052-9000.pdf | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of America - State Petitioner's Brief on the Merits
VR-AZ-0052-0022.pdf | Detail
Document Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona - Brief for Respondants
VR-AZ-0052-0023.pdf | Detail
Document Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona - Brief of Amici Curiae NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc., the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, and the Anti-Defamation League in Support of Respondents
VR-AZ-0052-0025.pdf | Detail
Document Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Complaint 05/09/2006
VR-AZ-0052-0002.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
COMPLAINT FOR DECLARATORY AND INJUNCTIVE RELIEF 05/24/2006
VR-AZ-0052-0016.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order and Opinion 06/19/2006 (435 F.Supp.2d 997) (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0010.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order 08/02/2006 (2006 WL 2246365) (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0011.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 09/11/2006 (2006 WL 3627297) (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0012.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Order (Vacating and Remanding Court of Appeals Order) 10/20/2006 (549 U.S. 1)
VR-AZ-0052-0017.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion 04/20/2007 (485 F.3d 1041)
VR-AZ-0052-0013.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
First Amended Complaint 08/17/2007
VR-AZ-0052-0003.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 01/22/2008 (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0004.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 02/05/2008 (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0005.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 02/21/2008 (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0006.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 06/27/2008 (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0007.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order: Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law 08/20/2008 (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0008.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Verified Complaint 07/20/2009
VR-AZ-0052-0015.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion 10/26/2010 (624 F.3d 1162)
VR-AZ-0052-0014.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Opinion (9th Cir., en banc) 04/17/2012 (677 F.3d 383)
VR-AZ-0052-0001.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: U.S. Court of Appeals website
Order 07/11/2012 (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0009.pdf | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion (Granting Motion of Mountain States Legal Foundation and Denying Petition for Writ of Certiorari to USCA) 10/15/2012 (133 S.Ct. 476 / 182 L.Ed.2d 774)
VR-AZ-0052-0018.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Arizona v. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona - Brief of Alabama, Georgia, Kansas, Michigan, Oklahoma, and Texas as Amici Curiae Supporting Petitioners 12/14/2012
VR-AZ-0052-0024.pdf | Detail
Document Source: ABA Supreme Court Briefs
Opinion (Denying Motion to Correct Case Caption) 01/14/2013 (133 S.Ct. 969 / 186 L.Ed.2d 239)
VR-AZ-0052-0019.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion (Granting Motion of the Solicitor General for Leave to Participate in Oral Argument) 02/19/2013 (133 S.Ct. 1310 / 186 L.Ed.2d 239)
VR-AZ-0052-0020.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
On Writ of Certiorari from the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals 06/17/2013
VR-AZ-0052-0021.pdf | Detail
Document Source: Supreme Court website
Judges Berzon, Marsha Siegel (Ninth Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0001
Ikuta, Sandra Segal (Ninth Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0001 | VR-AZ-0052-0014
Kozinski, Alex (Ninth Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0001 | VR-AZ-0052-0014
Pregerson, Harry (C.D. Cal., Ninth Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0001
Rawlinson, Johnnie B. (D. Nev., Ninth Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0001
Scalia, Antonin (SCOTUS, D.C. Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0021
Schroeder, Mary Murphy (Ninth Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0013
Silver, Roslyn O. (D. Ariz.)
VR-AZ-0052-0004 | VR-AZ-0052-0005 | VR-AZ-0052-0006 | VR-AZ-0052-0007 | VR-AZ-0052-0008 | VR-AZ-0052-0009 | VR-AZ-0052-0010 | VR-AZ-0052-0011 | VR-AZ-0052-0012 | VR-AZ-0052-9000
Stevens, John Paul (SCOTUS, Seventh Circuit)
VR-AZ-0052-0017
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Becerra, Carlos (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Bernal, Diego Manuel (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Blustein, Benjamin Jay (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Bobroff, Dana Lee (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Bodney, David Jeremy (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Bono, Marisa (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Bradley, Neil T. (Georgia)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Clani, Brenna L (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Cohen, Marvin S. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Dworkin, Judith M. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Egleson, Christopher M. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023
Espiritu, Nicholas David (California)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Ferguson-Bohnee, Patricia (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Greenbaum, Jon M. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000
Greene, Sara S (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Hartman-Tellez, Karen J. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Hudson, Thomas Lee (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Kengle, Robert A. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000
Kohrman, Daniel B. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
McDonald, Laughlin (Georgia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023
Millett, Patricia Ann (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023
Mincberg, Elliot M. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Ortega, Daniel R. Jr. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Perales, Nina (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-0002 | VR-AZ-0052-0003 | VR-AZ-0052-9000
Perez, Marisol Linda (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Posner, Mark A. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023
Ramos, Javier Garcia (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Rosenbaum, David B. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Sandstrom, Karl J (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Saxena, Monica Rakesh (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Small, Michael C. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023
Sparks, Joe P (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0016 | VR-AZ-0052-0023 | VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9001
Urias, David (New Mexico)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Vera, Luis R. Jr. (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-0016
Zamora, R. Erandi (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0023
Defendant's Lawyers Bailey, Barbara Anne (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Baker, M. Miller (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0022
Bickett, Paula (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0022
Brennan, Carrie Jane (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Carlyon, Bradley William (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9002
Cole, David Robert (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Collins, Thomas Matthew (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0022 | VR-AZ-0052-9000
Connor, M Colleen (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Horne, Thomas C. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0022
Iyer, Melissa G. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-0022
LaMar, Steven A. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Martoncik, Kathleen Erin (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Moore, Jason Stanley (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
O'Grady, Mary Ruth (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Parra, Luis Fernando (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Payette, Lance B. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Pendley, William Perry (Colorado)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Rapier, Derek D (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Ring, William P (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Roll, Chris Myrl (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Silverman, Peter Alex (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Skolnik, Bruce L. (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Spector, Joel M (Colorado)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Weber, Nicole (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Wilcox, Jean E (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000 | VR-AZ-0052-9002
Wilenchik, Dennis Ira (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Other Lawyers Abbott, Greg (Texas)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Adegibile, Debo P. (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Arnold, Michael (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Boddie, Elise C. (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Bornstein, Lisa M. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Brasher, Andrew L. (Alabama)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Civin, Joshua I. (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
de Leeuw, Michael Birney (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Fanarof, Justine K. (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Freeman, Steven M. (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Gotkin, Jerome (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Haygood, Ryan Paul (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Henderson, Wade (District of Columbia)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Jones, Lauren A. (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Montgomery, Dan W (Arizona)
VR-AZ-0052-9000
Neiman, John C. Jr. (Alabama)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Olens, Samuel (Georgia)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Pruitt, E. Scott (Oklahoma)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Ross, Deuel (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025
Schmidt, Derek (Kansas)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Schuette, Bill (Michigan)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Strange, Luther J (Alabama)
VR-AZ-0052-0024
Wu, Victorien (New York)
VR-AZ-0052-0025

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