University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
new search
page permalink
Case Name U.S. v. Jefferson County Bd. of Ed./Stout v. Jefferson County Bd. of Ed. SD-AL-0001
Docket / Court 2:65-cv-00396-IPJ ( N.D. Ala. )
State/Territory Alabama
Case Type(s) Education
School Desegregation
Special Collection Civil Rights Division Archival Collection
Attorney Organization NAACP Legal Defense Fund
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Case Summary
This is the case in which the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals took the firm position that "freedom of choice" plans could be legally insufficient to meet the constitutional obligations of a formerly de jure segregated school system to convert from "dual" to "unitary" schools. 372 F.2d 836 (1966) ( ... read more >
This is the case in which the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals took the firm position that "freedom of choice" plans could be legally insufficient to meet the constitutional obligations of a formerly de jure segregated school system to convert from "dual" to "unitary" schools. 372 F.2d 836 (1966) (Judge John Minor Wisdom), and that the Department of Health Education and Welfare's approach to school desegregation planning was appropriate. It stood in contrast the opposite view taken by the lower court in Briggs v. Elliot, ("Nothing in the Constitution or in the decision of the Supreme Court takes away from the people freedom the choose the schools they attend. The Constitution, in other words, does not require integration. It merely forbids discrimination.") 132 F.Supp. 776, 777 (E.D.S.C.1955). Not until 1968 did the Supreme Court take a side in this debate, coming down firmly (and unanimously) against freedom of choice as alone sufficient, in Green v. County School Board, 391 U.S. 430 (1968).

On June 4, 1964, an action on behalf of a class of black schoolchildren was filed against the Jefferson County (AL) Board of Education in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Alabama. The plaintiffs, represented by attorneys of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc., sought to desegregate the public schools of Jefferson County, Alabama. Finding that the school board maintained a racially segregated school system, the district court entered an unpublished order requiring the board to submit a desegregation plan. Following submission of the board's plan, the United States intervened as an additional plaintiff, represented by counsel from the U.S. Department of Justice's Civil Rights Division. Intervention was pursuant to Section 902 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000h-2.

On July 27, 1965, District Judge Seybourn H. Lynne entered an unpublished order approving the Board's plan and overruling objections filed by the plaintiffs and the United States. The plaintiffs and the United States appealed and, on August 17, 1965, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit vacated the district court order and remanded the case for further consideration in light of certain recently-decided appellate cases. United States v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 349 F.2d 1021 (5th Cir. 1965) (per curiam).

Upon remand, the board filed an amendment to its school desegregation plan which was approved by the district court on August 27, 1965. On October 25, 1965, the United States again appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. The appeal was consolidated, for briefing purposes, with similar appeals in six other school desegregation cases (United States v. Board of Education of the City of Fairfield; United States v. Board of Education of the City of Bessemer; United States v. Caddo Parish School Board; United States v. Bossier Parish School Board; Johnson v. Jackson Parish School Board; and Banks v. Claiborne Parish School Board). All the cases were from federal district courts in the Northern District of Alabama and the Western District of Louisiana.

A panel of the appellate court reversed the rulings below, and found that the desegregation standards set by guidelines of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) were within the rationale of the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), and the congressional objectives of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. United States v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 372 F.2d 836 (1966) (Circuit Judge John Minor Wisdom). Relying on language in the Supreme Court's second decision in Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955), Judge Wisdom wrote that the Constitution compels formerly de jure segregated public school systems based on dual attendance zones (and using what were called "permissive freedom of choice" plans) to shift to unitary, non-racial systems, with or without federal funds. The court found it appropriate for the federal government to condition local schools' receipt of federal funds on the schools' compliance with the HEW desegregation guidelines (which, according to Judge Wisdom, restated the judicial standards applicable to disestablishing de jure segregation in the public schools) or upon a school's agreement to comply with an applicable court desegregation order. The panel opinion observed that the Constitution is color blind in the sense that "a classification that denies a benefit, causes a harm, or imposes a burden must not be based upon race. But the Constitution is color conscious to prevent discrimination being perpetuated and to undo the effects of past discrimination." Id., at 876. The court then discussed specific elements of a freedom of choice plan which would be mandatory, annual and available to all students, regardless of race. An appendix attached to the opinion consisted of a proposed decree to be entered by the district courts, upon remand, and modified only upon proof of exceptional circumstances.

The appellate panel's opinion was adopted by the full Fifth Circuit's subsequent en banc review of the case. United States v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 380 F.2d 385 (5th Cir. 1967) (en banc) (per curiam). The proposed decree was revised in this review, in accordance with updated HEW guidelines. The decree addressed topics including speed of desegregation, exercise of choice, prospective students, transfers, services, facilities and activities, and programs, school equalization, new construction, faculty and staff, and reports to the court. The court emphasized that it was not enough for school boards to offer the opportunity for black children to attend formerly all-white schools. Overcoming the effects of the unconstitutional dual school systems required integration of faculties, facilities, and activities, as well as students. Id.

Details of this case's activity in the district court during the next few years are not currently available to the Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse; however, by 1971 an unpublished district court ruling resulted in another appeal to the Fifth Circuit. In a brief order, the appellate court vacated the district court's ruling and directed that, on remand, the district court must require the school board (including the boards of any splinter districts created since the filing of the original action) to implement a student assignment plan compliant with recent Supreme Court precedent. The district court was told (1) to not recognize the creation under state law of splinter school districts having the effect of thwarting the implementation of a unitary school system, (2) to fully implement recent Fifth Circuit precedent relating to faculty and staff desegregation, transfer policy, transportation, school construction and site selection, and attendance outside system of residence, and (3) to require the school board to file semi-annual status reports. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 448 F.2d 403 (5th Cir. 1971) (per curiam). The appellate ruling was followed by District Judge Sam C. Pointer's issuance of an amended order, on September 8, 1971, addressing details, per attendance zone and otherwise, of the school board's obligations under the decree.

For a time, near-yearly appeals to the Fifth Circuit followed, sometimes involving multiple cases consolidated on appeal. In 1972, a panel of that court upheld Judge Pointer's order, affirming his direction that a county school board take over the operations of a splinter school district when the latter's board refused to comply with the district court's decree. The appellate court required the district judge's annual review of the non-compliance, however, so that local control of schools could be re-established as soon as possible. In its decision, the Fifth Circuit also revised, or required the district court to study and revise, limited aspects of Judge Pointer's order addressing transportation, transfers and school construction. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 466 F.2d 1213 (5th Cir. 1972) (per curiam). In 1973, an appeal resulted in an opinion that affirmed the district court's order modifying certain attendance zones and transforming, at the county school board's request, a formerly all-black high school into an integrated center for exceptional children. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 483 F.2d 84 (5th Cir. 1973) (per curiam). On remand, Judge Pointer addressed additional attendance zones within the school district. Then, when one high school's subsequent attendance figures suggested a white boycott was occurring, the school board sought modification of the judge's orders. Judge Pointer denied the request and the board appealed. The Fifth Circuit affirmed, finding the board could not show an abuse of discretion had occurred, since the district judge's action resulted from an in-chambers, unreported hearing. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 489 F.2d 97 (5th Cir. 1974) (per curiam).

During the period following issuance of the 1971 decree, the United States also appealed. Once, when Judge Pointer refused to modify attendance zones for two elementary schools in accord with a federal proposal, his decision resulted in maintaining the schools as all black. On appeal, the Fifth Circuit affirmed, finding that the district judge acted in the context (1) of already-achieved dismantling of the dual public school system in Jefferson County, (2) of concern for the risk to children stemming from lengthy bussing over busy roads and through mountains, and (3) with an experienced-based assessment that his decision minimized the risk of further white boycotting of the schools. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 537 F.2d 800 (5th Cir. 1976) (Circuit Judge Thomas Gibbs Gee). The appellate court observed, however, that this limited existence of single-race schools in the county's now unitary school system warranted continued scrutiny of the school system by the district court. Id. The United States' application for rehearing or for rehearing en banc was denied. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 544 F.2d 1342 (5th Cir. 1976) (Circuit Judge Gee).

Over a decade later, the unitary status of Jefferson County's public remained an issue. By this time, the former Fifth Circuit had been divided into two courts, one retaining the Fifth Circuit appellation and the newer one forming as the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit. With Alabama included in the Eleventh Circuit's boundaries, the new court had jurisdiction over an appeal resulting from Judge Pointer's action. In his district court in August 1987, a group of black schoolchildren filed as plaintiffs. They lived in an area recently annexed from the county into a city. This led to their being assigned to attend heavily black city schools, with the county schools the plaintiffs would have attended then being predominately white. Plaintiffs sought an injunction allowing them to remain in the county school system. Judge Pointer denied the requested relief in an unpublished order. He relied upon the fact that the city schools had been declared unitary, that the county school board did not cause the change in attendance districts, and that that board had been following a consistent policy applied in all cases of annexation.

The plaintiffs appealed to the Eleventh Circuit. Circuit Judge Phyllis A. Kravitch, writing for the court, noted that the plaintiffs wrongly sought interdistrict relief without demonstrating both an interdistrict violation and interdistrict effect, contrary to Milliken v. Bradley, 418 U.S. 717 (1974). The argument that, despite the involvement of two school systems, the plaintiffs actually sought intradistrict relief (with the requested injunction simply being a means to ensure the effectiveness of the original desegregation order applicable to the county) also failed, since the city system had already been declared unitary and the plaintiffs sought essentially permanent relief, depriving a locality of control over its schools without a finding of a constitutional violation. As for Jefferson County's school system, Judge Kravitch noted the Fifth Circuit's 1976 ruling (above) declaring that the county now operated a unitary system, the qualification of that declaration via the continuation of court supervision over the district, and a later Eleventh Circuit statement (in a different case, Brown v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 808 F.2d 1445 (11th Cir. 1987)) that the county system had yet to be declared unitary. Stout v. Jefferson County Board of Education, 845 F.2d 1559 (5th Cir. 1988).

Again, over a decade passed. On September 15, 2000, prompted by the proposed closure of two schools, a consent order proposed by the parties was signed by District Judge Inge Prytz Johnson. The order, which included supporting data, required certain attendance zone modifications and student reassignments. The order cited the defendant school board's acknowledgment that it had failed to appropriately monitor intra-district transfers for compliance with applicable court rulings and set out plans to remedy that shortcoming.

Over forty years after this case began, the district court continued to require compliance by Jefferson County's public schools with constitutional standards and the 1971 remedial order. In May 2005, Judge Johnson approved an unpublished consent order (twice modifying it that August) which approved the operation, within Jefferson County, of the City of Trussville's newly-formed school system. The order reflects that counsel for the plaintiffs, for the United States and for the defendants were all apprised, in advance, of the planned new system and given the opportunity to review relevant information concerning its formation, operation and impact, so that the court could ensure that there would be no impediment to the desegregation process. The order included an inter-district transfer policy, a pupil transportation policy, and plans for attendance zone issues arising during the transitional period. Acknowledging the impact of new legislation, the order also addressed the impact of transfers which might result from requirements imposed on schools by provisions of the federal "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001," 20 U.S.C. ยงยง 6316. The consent order explicitly observed that the new district was subject to the court's 1971 order and imposed detailed reporting requirements for the Trussville school board. One of Judge Johnson's August 2005 modifications approved certain student transfers requested under the No Child Left Behind Act, noting that transfer obligations the Act imposed on the board can fundamentally conflict with transfer guidelines in prior desegregation orders issued by the court.

In an unpublished August 7, 2007, order, upon motion from the county school board, Judge Johnson again approved proposed student transfers for the upcoming school year, as had been requested under the No Child Left Behind Act. Court supervision continued, with Judge Johnson approving, in an unpublished August 24, 2007, order, a joint motion seeking approval of the county board's plan to build a new middle school. In following months, school boards subject to court supervision in this case continued to file status reports with the court.

On May 26, 2009, the Court approved a modification to school zone lines; on January 1, 2010 approved more construction projects; and on April 14, 2011, approved a grade reconfiguration and classroom construction.

On July 29, 2011, the Court issued an order modifying the existing desegregation order to allow transfers under No Child Left Behind that fundamentally conflicted with the existing desegregation order for the 2010-2011 school year.

The case remains ongoing, with yearly status reports submitted to the Court.

Mike Fagan - 04/22/2008
Claire Lally - 04/03/2015


compress summary

- click to show/hide ALL -
Issues and Causes of Action
click to show/hide detail
Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Develop anti-discrimination policy
Discrimination Prohibition
Monitoring
Defendant-type
Elementary/Secondary School
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Education
Racial segregation
School/University Facilities
School/University policies
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Race, unspecified
Type of Facility
Government-run
Causes of Action None on record
Defendant(s) Jefferson County
Plaintiff Description African American school children in Jefferson County, Alabama; United States Department of Justice
Indexed Lawyer Organizations NAACP Legal Defense Fund
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1971 - n/a
Case Closing Year n/a
Case Ongoing Yes
Additional Resources
click to show/hide detail
Case Studies The Supreme Court and Southern School Desegregation, 1955-1970: A History and Analysis
By: J. Harvie Wilkinson III
Citation: 64 Va. L. Rev. 485 (1978)
[ Detail ]

Links Henry Hampton Collection: Interview of James Armstrong
Henry Hampton Collection: Washington University in St. Louis
By: James Armstrong, Henry Hampton Collection
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Henry Hampton Collection: Interview of Judge John Minor Wisdom
Henry Hampton Collection: Washington University in St. Louis
Posted: Oct. 31, 1985
By: Judge John Minor Wisdom, Henry Hampton Collection
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
65-396 (N.D. Ala.) 02/23/2016
SD-AL-0001-9000 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Appendix to Briefs of United States, Volume IV
SD-AL-0001-0037 PDF | Detail
Document Source:
Brief for the United States 04/25/1966
SD-AL-0001-0001 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Appendix to Briefs of United States, revised vol 1 04/25/1966
SD-AL-0001-0002 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Appendix to Briefs of United States, vol 2 04/25/1966
SD-AL-0001-0003 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Appendix to Briefs of United States, vol 3 04/25/1966
SD-AL-0001-0004 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Appendix to Briefs of United States, vol 4 04/25/1966
SD-AL-0001-0005 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Supplemental Memorandum of the United States 06/03/1966
SD-AL-0001-0006 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Papers of Brian Landsberg
Opinion 12/29/1966 (372 F.2d 836)
SD-AL-0001-0013 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: U.S. Court of Appeals website
Untitled 12/29/1966
SD-AL-0001-0036 PDF | Detail
Document Source:
Opinion [On Petitions for Rehearing En Banc] 03/29/1967 (380 F.2d 385)
SD-AL-0001-0032 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source:
Opinion 06/03/1968 (396 F.2d 44)
SD-AL-0001-0015 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Per Curiam 07/01/1969 (417 F.2d 846)
SD-AL-0001-0016 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Per Curiam 12/01/1969 (419 F.2d 1211)
SD-AL-0001-0017 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Per Curiam 01/21/1970 (425 F.2d 1211)
SD-AL-0001-0018 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Opinion 07/06/1971 (448 F.2d 403)
SD-AL-0001-0019 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Amended Order 09/08/1971 (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0007 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Rehearing and Rehearing En Banc Denied 09/07/1972 (466 F.2d 1213)
SD-AL-0001-0020 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Opinion 07/18/1973 (483 F.2d 84)
SD-AL-0001-0021 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Opinion 01/25/1974 (489 F.2d 97)
SD-AL-0001-0022 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Opinion 08/10/1976 (537 F.2d 800)
SD-AL-0001-0023 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
On Petition for Rehearing and Petition for Rehearing En Banc 12/22/1976 (544 F.2d 1342)
SD-AL-0001-0024 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Opinion 05/27/1988 (845 F.2d 1559)
SD-AL-0001-0025 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Public.Resource.Org
Consent Order 09/15/2000 (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0008 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 05/02/2005 (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0009 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Approving Modification of Desegregation Order 08/10/2005 (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0010 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Motion for Court Approval to Allow Hayden Willcutt to Complete his Education at Bragg Middle School and Gardendale High School 08/17/2005
SD-AL-0001-0011 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Notice of Filing Reports on Behalf of Trussville City Board of Education 10/19/2006
SD-AL-0001-0030 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order Approving Modification of Desegregation Order 08/07/2007 (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0012 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
RE: Federal Court Order Report Homewood City School System 03/02/2010
SD-AL-0001-0029 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Pro Publica
Unopposed Motion for Grade reconfiguration and Construction of Classrooms 04/13/2011
SD-AL-0001-0026 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Pro Publica
Order Approving Modification of Desegregation Order 07/29/2011 (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0031 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Motion to Modify Desegration Order 08/02/2012
SD-AL-0001-0028 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Pro Publica
Jefferson County Board of Education's October 2012 Report to the Court 11/16/2012
SD-AL-0001-0027 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Pro Publica
Judges Ainsworth, Robert Andrew Jr. (E.D. La., Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Bell, Griffin Boyette (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Brown, John Robert (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Carswell, George Harrold (N.D. Fla., Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Clark, Charles (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Coleman, James Plemon (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Cox, Elijah Allen (N.D. Miss.)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Dyer, David William (Fifth Circuit, S.D. Fla., Eleventh Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Garza, Reynaldo Guerra (S.D. Tex., Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0015
Gee, Thomas Gibbs (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Gewin, Walter Pettus (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Godbold, John Cooper (Fifth Circuit, Eleventh Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Goldberg, Irving Loeb (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Haikala, Madeline Hughes (N.D. Ala.) [Magistrate]
SD-AL-0001-9000
Henderson, Albert John (Fifth Circuit, N.D. Ga., Eleventh Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0025
Henley, Jesse Smith (E.D. Ark., W.D. Ark., Eighth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0025
Ingraham, Joe McDonald (S.D. Tex., Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022
Johnson, Inge Prytz (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0008 | SD-AL-0001-0009 | SD-AL-0001-0010 | SD-AL-0001-0012 | SD-AL-0001-0031
Kravitch, Phyllis A. (Fifth Circuit, Eleventh Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0025
Morgan, Lewis Render (Fifth Circuit, N.D. Ga., Eleventh Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Pointer, Sam Clyde Jr. (N.D. Ala.)
SD-AL-0001-0007
Simpson, John Milton Bryan (Fifth Circuit, M.D. Fla., Eleventh Circuit, S.D. Fla.)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Thornberry, William Homer (W.D. Tex., Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021
Wisdom, John Minor (Fifth Circuit)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Adams, Oscar W. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016
Amaker, Norman C. (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019
Anderson, Rueben V. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Banks, Fred L. Jr. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Barre, Melvin P. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Barrett, St. John (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013
Bell, Murphy W. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Berman, Amy I. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Billingsley, Orzell Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Bleveans, John (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Bowers, Theodore R. (Florida)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Brest, Iris (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Brest, Paul (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Bronstein, Alvin J. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Burg, Harvey M. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016
Chachkin, Norman J. (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0008 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024 | SD-AL-0001-0025 | SD-AL-0001-9000
Clemon, U. W. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Collins, Robert Frederick (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Crawford, Vernon Z. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
David, Harris (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Davidson, Michael (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Days, Drew S. III (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Doar, John (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0006 | SD-AL-0001-0013
Dunbaugh, Frank M. III (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0020
Dunne, Sarah A. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Finkelstein, Joel M. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0006 | SD-AL-0001-0013
Flannery, J. Harold (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Garrish, Theodore J. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Gaston, A. Lattimore (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0022
Gorman, Walter (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Graves, William C. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Greenberg, Gary J. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0018
Greenberg, Jack (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Gregory, David D. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Hancock, Paul F. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Hardee, Richard B. (Texas)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Harrison, Jack H. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Hood, David H. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Jackson, Thomas M. (Georgia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Johnson, Kenneth L. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0015
Johnson, Earl M. (Florida)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Johnston, Joseph F. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Jones, Elaine R. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Jones, Charles H. Jr. (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0015
Jones, Elaine R. (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0008
Kohrman, Daniel B. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0008
Landsberg, Brian K. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Leifer, Elihu (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0006
Leonard, Jerris (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019
Leventhal, Melvyn R. (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Lewin, Nathan (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016
Loper, Merle W. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0016
Lucas, Louis (Tennessee)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Marshall, Reese (Florida)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Martin, Alice H. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Maurer, Michael S. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0008 | SD-AL-0001-9000
Maxey, John L. II (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Mayer, Kristan S. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Miller, Pauline A. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Moore, Robert T. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Morgan, Charles Jr. (Georgia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Nabrit, James M. III (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Nesson, Charles R. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013
Newton, Demetrius C. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Norman, David L. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0006 | SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021
Pollak, Stephen J. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016
Pottinger, J. Stanley (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Queen, Jesse H. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Rachlin, Carl (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Rankin, D. Battle (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Roberts, Robert P. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Robinson, William L. (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Ruffin, John H. Jr. (Georgia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Scall, Lester (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-0016
Seay, Solomon S. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Shapiro, Jonathan (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Sherrer, Wayman (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Simmons, Sharon D. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Simons, Valerie (District of Columbia)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Smith, Jenny L. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-9000
Sobol, Richard B. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Somerville, William G. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Strickler, George Marion Jr. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Tureaud, A. P. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Vance, Robert Smith (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Weaver, Macon L. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016
White, Franklin E. (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
White-Spunner, Charles S. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Wright, Marian E. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Zarr, Melvyn (New York)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Defendant's Lawyers Airhart, Teddy W. Jr. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Allain, William A. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Baker, William H. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Barnes, Reid B. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Bennett, Julian (Florida)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Bishop, Maurice F. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0001 | SD-AL-0001-0002 | SD-AL-0001-0003 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0004 | SD-AL-0001-0005 | SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
Brooks, James D. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Cannada, Robert C. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Colvin, Whit (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0027 | SD-AL-0001-0028 | SD-AL-0001-9000
Colvin, Gerald D. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-9000
DeJean, Kenneth C. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Duncan, Harry C. (Florida)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Falkenheiner, W. C. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Faulkner, James H. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Gallion, MacDonald (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Gremillion, Jack P.F. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Harbour, Henry H. (Texas)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Hulbert, D. P. (Georgia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Jackson, Fred L. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Johnson, Carl E. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0008 | SD-AL-0001-0025 | SD-AL-0001-9000
Johnston, J. Bennett Jr. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Jones, Frank Cater (Georgia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Kent, Burgin (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0025
Kilbourne, Richard H. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Kron, Harry Jr. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Luckett, Semmes (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Madison, Gordon (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016
McEniry, J. Howard Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0013 | SD-AL-0001-0015 | SD-AL-0001-0016 | SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0019 | SD-AL-0001-0020 | SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0022 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024
McFerrin, Thomas Sr. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Miller, Wallace Jr. (Georgia)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Norris, Palmer W. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0020
Pelham, Pierre (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Philips, Abram L. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Richardson, John A. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Rogers, George (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Satterfield, John C. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0013
Shands, Dugas (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Simmons, Kermit M. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Smith, Benjamin E. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Smith, John M. (Texas)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Summer, A. F. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Sweeney, Donald B. Jr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0021 | SD-AL-0001-0023 | SD-AL-0001-0024 | SD-AL-0001-0026 | SD-AL-0001-0030
Ward, John F. Jr. (Louisiana)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018
Watkins, Thomas H. (Mississippi)
SD-AL-0001-0017 | SD-AL-0001-0018 | SD-AL-0001-0025
Other Lawyers Fisher, Samuel (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0025
Gray, Fred David Sr. (Alabama)
SD-AL-0001-0021

- click to show/hide ALL -

new search
page permalink

- top of page -