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Case Name United States v. Director Alabama Personnel Department EE-AL-0096
Docket / Court 2:68-CV-02709 ( M.D. Ala. )
State/Territory Alabama
Case Type(s) Equal Employment
Attorney Organization Southern Poverty Law Center
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Case Summary
On June 12, 1968 the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama against the State of Alabama under Title VII, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e. et seq. (Title VII). The DOJ asked the court for injunctive relief, alleging that the ... read more >
On June 12, 1968 the United States Department of Justice (DOJ) filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama against the State of Alabama under Title VII, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e. et seq. (Title VII). The DOJ asked the court for injunctive relief, alleging that the defendant had violated Title VII by discriminating against applicants for employment on the basis of race by bypassing higher ranked African-American applicants in favor of lower ranked white applicants.

The complaint alleged that the Alabama Personnel Department discriminated on the basis of race by hiring lower ranked white applicants over higher ranked African-American applicants. A no-bypass rule was instituted by the Alabama Personnel Department. On July 28, 1970, United States brought this action to enforce the federal requirement that state personnel engaged in administration of federally financed grant-in-aid programs be recruited, hired and promoted or demoted on merit basis, without discrimination on the grounds of race or color (317 F.Supp 1079, D.C.Ala. 1970). The District Court (Judge Frank M. Johnson, Jr.) ordered: that the affected African-American applicants be offered the first available position with the rate of pay he would have and seniority rights; that African-American applicants be appointed to positions other than custodial, domestic, laborer or laboratory aide, unless another position is filled; that the defendants not appoint or offer a position to a lower-ranking white applicant over a higher-ranking available African-American applicant.

In May of 2002, in order to determine whether the no-bypass rule was still necessary, the state defendants hired statistical experts to examine the racial composition of the Alabama workforce as well as the racial patterns of recent selections in the workforce.

On February 11, 2003, a white employee of the Alabama Department of Corrections (ADC) who had claimed that he had been denied a promotion because of the no-bypass rule, moved to intervene. He alleged, among other things, that the no-bypass rule was unconstitutional and must be modified or ended.

On February 11, 2003, the United States and the state defendants began discussions on the results of the statistical analysis and proposed to terminate the no-bypass rule, as the problems, aimed at by the no-bypass rule, were remedied. On March 20, 2003, the United States and the state defendants entered a joint motion to terminate the no-bypass rule.

On May 22, 2003, representatives of African-American employees of the State of Alabama moved to intervene to oppose termination or modification of the no-bypass rule and to otherwise enforce it. On January 20, 2004, the Court (Judge Myron Thompson) granted both the white employee of ADC and the African-American employees the right to intervene under the permissive intervention rule. On February 28, 2004, the ADC employee filed a motion to terminate the no-bypass rule.

On April 21, 2004, the white employee of the ADC filed a motion to certify class. On the same day, non-black employees filed a motion to intervene. On March 28, 2005, the Court (Judge Myron Thompson) denied both motions conditionally until after the court determined the scope of discovery and the scope of its inquiry into the joint motion to terminate the no-bypass rule.

On May 9, 2005, the white employee moved for preliminary injunction. On May 20, 2005, the Court (Judge Myron Thompson) issued an order, treating the joint motion to terminate the no-bypass rule as a motion for preliminary injunction, and granted both the motion as well as ADC employee's preliminary injunction motion. The court suspended the no-bypass rule effective no later than June 20, 2005, pending final resolution of the challenges to the rule. The court reasoned that the special change in circumstances warranted the suspension of the rule.

On June 1, 2005 the ADC employee filed a motion for interim award of attorneys' fees. On September 09, 2005 the white employee filed a motion for summary judgment. On the same day, the state defendants filed a motion for summary judgment on the joint motion to terminate no-bypass rule.

On June 30, 2006, the Court (Judge Myron Thompson) issued a judgment, permanently terminating the no-bypass rule. The court reasoned that the no-bypass rule was no longer an appropriate tool, and that there was no longer a fit between the practices and the rule. United States v. Director Alabama Personnel Department, 444 F.Supp.2d 1192 (M.D. Ala. 2006).

On September 17, 2007, the Court granted the plaintiff-intervenor's motion for attorney's fees to the extent that plaintiff-intervenor recovered $61,499.70 for fees and expenses. The state defendants filed an appeal against the order granting attorney's fees to the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals.

On July 1, 2008, the plaintiff-intervenor filed a motion for attorney's fees on appeal, which was denied without prejudice on the same day.

On August 19, 2008, the Eleventh Circuit issued a judgment per curiam, affirming the District Court's grant of attorney's fees to the plaintiff-intervenor. United States v. Director Alabama Personnel Department, 281 Fed.Appx. 960 (11th Cir. 2008).

On November 30, 2012, the Court (Judge Myron Thompson) issued an order terminating and dissolving all outstanding injunctions and orders issued in this case, with the last of them terminating on December 31, 2014.

Katie Campos - 11/27/2007
Zhandos Kuderin - 07/10/2014


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Content of Injunction
Develop anti-discrimination policy
Discrimination Prohibition
Follow recruitment, hiring, or promotion protocols
Hire
Other requirements regarding hiring, promotion, retention
Preliminary relief granted
Promotion
Retroactive Senority
Utilize objective hiring/promotion criteria
Defendant-type
Corrections
Jurisdiction-wide
Sanitation/Public Works
Discrimination-area
Hiring
Promotion
Seniority
Testing
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Disparate Treatment
Pattern or Practice
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Black
White
Causes of Action Title VII (including PDA), 42 U.S.C. § 2000e
Defendant(s) Alabama Department of Corrections
Alabama State Employees
Director Alabama Personnel Department
Plaintiff Description The United States Department of Justice filing on behalf of African American applicants/employees, with a white employee and several black employees later intervening
Indexed Lawyer Organizations Southern Poverty Law Center
U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Mixed
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Preliminary injunction / Temp. restraining order
Attorneys fees
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 1968 - 2014
Case Closing Year 2014
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Megacases, Diversity, and the Elusive Goal of Workplace Reform
Written: Mar. 01, 2008
By: Nancy Levit (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
Citation: 49 B.C. L. Rev. 367 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach
By: Susan Sturm (Columbia Law School)
Citation: 101 Colum. L. Rev. 458 (2001)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
07-14854-DD (U.S. Court of Appeals) 02/04/2008
EE-AL-0096-9002 PDF | Detail
2:68-cv-02709 (M.D. Ala.) 11/30/2012
EE-AL-0096-9001 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Memorandum Opinion 07/28/1970 (317 F.Supp. 1079) (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0010 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
District Court Opinion 03/24/1972 (340 F.Supp. 703) (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0009 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Complaint and Motion to Modify Injunction of Plaintiff-Intervenor Timothy D. Pope 01/28/2004
EE-AL-0096-0001 PDF | Detail
Order 02/26/2004 (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0002 PDF | Detail
Complaint-In-Intervention of Eugene Crum, et al 03/12/2004
EE-AL-0096-0003 PDF | Detail
Complaint-In-Intervention of Johnny Reynolds, et al 03/12/2004
EE-AL-0096-0004 PDF | Detail
Order 03/28/2005 (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0005 PDF | Detail
Order [Granting Preliminary Relief] 05/20/2005 (372 F.Supp.2d 1319) (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0015 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Defendants' Motion For Summary Judgment 09/09/2005
EE-AL-0096-0007 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Plaintiff-Intervenor Timothy D. Pope's Brief and Evidentiary Submission in Support of Summary Judgment on Intervenor's Motion to Modify Injunction 09/09/2005
EE-AL-0096-0008 PDF | Detail
Judgment 06/30/2006 (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0006 PDF | Detail
Opinion [Concerning the No-Bypass Rule] 06/30/2006 (444 F.Supp.2d 1192) (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0012 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Opinion and Order 09/17/2007 (2007 WL 2725264) (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0011 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Judgment [USCA] 06/18/2008 (281 Fed.Appx. 960)
EE-AL-0096-0014 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order [Concerning Attorneys' Fees] 07/01/2008 (M.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0013 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Judges Barkett, Rosemary (Eleventh Circuit)
EE-AL-0096-0014
Carnes, Edward Earl (Eleventh Circuit)
EE-AL-0096-0014
Coody, Charles S. (M.D. Ala.) [Magistrate]
EE-AL-0096-9001
Edmondson, James Larry (Eleventh Circuit)
EE-AL-0096-0014
Johnson, Frank Minis Jr. (Fifth Circuit, M.D. Ala., Eleventh Circuit)
EE-AL-0096-0009 | EE-AL-0096-0010
Thompson, Myron Herbert (M.D. Ala., N.D. Ala.)
EE-AL-0096-0002 | EE-AL-0096-0005 | EE-AL-0096-0006 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-0012 | EE-AL-0096-0013 | EE-AL-0096-0015 | EE-AL-0096-9001
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Adams, Russell Wayne (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Adelstein, Jay (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Blizzard, Henry Wallace III (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Boyd, Ralph F. Jr. (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Brown, Gary L (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0008 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Calamusa, Rocco Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Canary, Leura Garrett (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9002
Childs, Robert F. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001
Clark, Richard Scott (California)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-9001
Cooper, James Michael (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0008 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Curran, Stephen J. (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Dees, Morris S. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009
DeMent, Ira (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009 | EE-AL-0096-0010
Donahue, Susan Gale (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Fitzpatrick , Raymond P. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-0008 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Himmelman, Harold (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Huron, Douglas (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0009
Leonard, Jerris (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Levin, Joseph J. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009
Martin, Marybeth (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Mattison, Deborah A. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Perkins, Byron Renard (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Rose, David L. (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Ruzicho, Andrew Jack (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Seeley, Sharon (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Simon, Kell Ascher (Texas)
EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-9001
Snyder, Patricia A. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Tejani, Sharyn A. (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Vines, Kenneth E. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Watson, Patricia A. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Whitsett, Louis Clifford (District of Columbia)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Wiggins, Ann K. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Wiggins, Robert L Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Defendant's Lawyers Acton, E. Ray (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009
Anderson, Susan B. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Baker, Beverly P. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Barnett, Henry Clay Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Baxley, William J. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009
Borden, Lisa Wright (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-9001
Boyd, David R. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Byrne, Alice Ann (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Campbell, Andrew P (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Fleming, Margaret L. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Foster, J. Eugene (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Gallion, MacDonald (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Hetzel, Tara S. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Hosp, Edward Andrew (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Huntley, Willie J. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Hyde, Robbie (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Isler, Mai Lan Fogal (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
King, Troy Robin (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Lightfoot, Warren B Jr (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Madison, Gordon (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009 | EE-AL-0096-0010
McQueen, William N. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Meadows, Richard N. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Park, John J. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-9001
Pettigrew, Jaime L. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Price, J. Victor Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0009
Pryor, William Holcombe Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Simpson, James A. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Sims, Patrick H. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Smith, David Michael (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Stapp, Mary Lee (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Sykes, Bernard F. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Thagard, Thomas W. Jr. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0010
Ussery, R. Frank (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Walker, Jordan Dorman (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001
Weller, Christopher W. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004 | EE-AL-0096-0007 | EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Wells, Barbara Jean (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Williams, Mark Jefferson (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-9001
Other Lawyers Cohen, J. Richard (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0011 | EE-AL-0096-9001 | EE-AL-0096-9002
Gardner, William F. (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0001 | EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004
Musso, Joe (Alabama)
EE-AL-0096-0003 | EE-AL-0096-0004

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