University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
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Case Name United States of America v. New York City Board of Education EE-NY-0197
Docket / Court 1:96-cv-00374 ( E.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Equal Employment
Special Collection IWPR/Wage Project Consent Decree Study
Attorney Organization U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Case Summary
On January 30, 1996, the United States Department of Justice (D.O.J.) filed a complaint under Title VII, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e. et seq. (Title VII) against the City of New York, Board of Education and the New York City Department of Personnel in the U.S. District Court of Eastern New York. The D.O.J. ... read more >
On January 30, 1996, the United States Department of Justice (D.O.J.) filed a complaint under Title VII, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e. et seq. (Title VII) against the City of New York, Board of Education and the New York City Department of Personnel in the U.S. District Court of Eastern New York. The D.O.J. sought a preliminary injunction, alleging that the defendant had violated Title VII by discriminating against minorities in custodial hiring.

Specifically, the complaint alleges that the New York City Board of Education discriminated on the basis of race in custodial hiring practices by: (1) administering written entry-level exams a as prerequisite for obtaining a custodial position that had disparate impact on blacks and Hispanics; and (2) that recruiting practices for those tests had disparate impact on blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and females.

In February 1999, the lawsuit resulted in a settlement agreement that awarded employment benefits to a group of 59 individuals composed of black, Hispanic and Asian men and women, and non-minority females.

This spawned interventions in that action by two groups supportive of the settlement, and one group opposed. Those supportive were 31 of the 59 beneficiaries (the "Caldero" and "Arroyo" intervenors). Those opposed were four white male custodial employees (the "Brennan" intervenors), who railed against the adverse effect the agreement had on their seniority rights in regard to (1) school building transfers, (2) temporary care assignments, and (3) layoffs. Rather than rely on their intervention rights, they also, together with two other white male custodial employees, brought a separate action (but by order dated November 24, 2004, the court consolidated both actions). They asserted that their seniority rights were violated in those three aspects under both Title VII and the 14th Amendment, and sought injunctive relief.

On September 11, 2006, the court (Judge Frederic Block) declined to enter the Agreement as a consent judgment. The court declared, however, that the Agreement is valid under Title VII, except to the extent that it grants preferential seniority as to layoffs to non-victims of race, national origin and gender discrimination. The court further declared that the Agreement is valid under the 14tha Amendment, except to the extent that it (1) grants preferential seniority as to layoffs to non-victims of discrimination, and (2) grants relief to racial or ethnic minorities based on the recruiting claim. The court also declared that one of the 59 beneficiaries is not a member of protected class. Finally, the court grants class-action status to those whose layoff-protection rights were displaced by non-victims of discrimination.

On August 22, 2008, the clerk of the court entered the judgment and the case was closed.

Kunyi Zhang - 09/17/2010


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Content of Injunction
Comply with advertising/recruiting requirements
Other requirements regarding hiring, promotion, retention
Retroactive Senority
Defendant-type
Elementary/Secondary School
Discrimination-area
Hiring
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Pattern or Practice
Plaintiff Type
U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff
Race
Black
White
Causes of Action Title VII (including PDA), 42 U.S.C. § 2000e
Defendant(s) 115-13 120th Street
Department of Citywide Administrative Services
New York City Board of Education
William J. Diamond, Personnel Director, New York City Department of Personnel (in her official capacity)
Plaintiff Description United States
Indexed Lawyer Organizations U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Damages
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Settlement
Form of Settlement Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree
Order Duration 1997 - n/a
Case Closing Year 2008
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Megacases, Diversity, and the Elusive Goal of Workplace Reform
Written: Mar. 01, 2008
By: Nancy Levit (University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law)
Citation: 49 B.C. L. Rev. 367 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Second Generation Employment Discrimination: A Structural Approach
By: Susan Sturm (Columbia Law School)
Citation: 101 Colum. L. Rev. 458 (2001)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
1:02-CV-00256 (E.D.N.Y.) 06/08/2009
EE-NY-0197-9001 PDF | Detail
PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
Memorandum of Law in Support of Plaintiffs' Motion for a Preliminary Injunction
EE-NY-0197-0004 PDF | Detail
Settlement Agreement 02/11/1999
EE-NY-0197-0001 PDF | Detail
Complaint in Intervention 01/01/2000 (2000 WL 34498101)
EE-NY-0197-0006 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Court of Appeals Opinion 08/03/2001 (260 F.3d 123)
EE-NY-0197-0016 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Second Amended Complaint in Intervention 11/09/2001
EE-NY-0197-0003 PDF | Detail
Memorandum and Opinion 11/26/2002 (2002 WL 31663069) (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0018 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Memorandum and Order 07/25/2003 (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0002 PDF | Detail
Memorandum & Order 08/15/2005 (2005 WL 1949477) (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0017 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Memorandum and Order (motion for protective order or injunctive relief denied) 08/16/2005 (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0007 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Brennan Intervenors' Third Amended Complaint in Intervention 02/22/2006
EE-NY-0197-0005 PDF | Detail
Brennan Intervenors' Third Amended Complaint in Intervention 02/22/2006
EE-NY-0197-0008 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Order 09/11/2006 (448 F.Supp.2d 397) (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0015 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum and Order (motion to enter the Agreement as consent judgment denied) 09/12/2006 (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0009 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum and Order (certifying a class and finding evidence that supports the conclusion that 8206 exam had a disparate impact on Hispanics) 04/25/2007 (487 F.Supp.2d 220) (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0010 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum and Order (motion to consolidate cases granted) 08/30/2007 (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0011 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Clerk's Judgment 08/22/2008 (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0012 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Memorandum and Order (motions for relief pending appeal denied) 06/08/2009 (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0013 PDF | Detail
Document Source: Non-web U.S. District Court Clerk's Office
Judges Block, Frederic (E.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0007 | EE-NY-0197-0009 | EE-NY-0197-0010 | EE-NY-0197-0011 | EE-NY-0197-0012 | EE-NY-0197-0013 | EE-NY-0197-0015 | EE-NY-0197-0017 | EE-NY-0197-0018 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Cardamone, Richard J. (Second Circuit)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Levy, Robert M. (E.D.N.Y.) [Magistrate]
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Pooler, Rosemary S. (Second Circuit, N.D.N.Y.)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Winter, Ralph K. Jr. (FISCR, Second Circuit)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Dimsey, Dennis J. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Edwards, Lisa Wilson (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Hajec, Christopher J. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0005 | EE-NY-0197-0008
Lavin, Luis A (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0001
Lee, Bill Lann (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0001 | EE-NY-0197-0016
Lin, Tana (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0001
Martin, Marybeth (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0001 | EE-NY-0197-0002
McCarter, George W.C. (New Jersey)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0003 | EE-NY-0197-0004 | EE-NY-0197-0005 | EE-NY-0197-0008 | EE-NY-0197-0016 | EE-NY-0197-0018
Rosman, Michael E. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0003 | EE-NY-0197-0004 | EE-NY-0197-0005 | EE-NY-0197-0008 | EE-NY-0197-0015 | EE-NY-0197-0016 | EE-NY-0197-0017 | EE-NY-0197-0018 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Roth, Christine M. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-9001
Schuham, Aaron D. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0001
Shumsky, Michael (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0005 | EE-NY-0197-0008
Defendant's Lawyers Adler, Derek J.T. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-9001
Allbray, Igou M. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-9001
Beckoff, Alan (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Bell, Keisha Dawn (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Boyd, Ralph F. Jr. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0018
Chernofsky, Melissa R. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-9001
Colangelo, Matthew B. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0015 | EE-NY-0197-0017 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Colley, Drake A. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0001
Cote, Norma Ann (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0001 | EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0018 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Danis, Jodi B (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0018 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Gadzichowski, John M. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0018 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Hess, Michael D. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0001 | EE-NY-0197-0016 | EE-NY-0197-0018
Lapidus, Lenora M. (New Jersey)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Leggott, Charles E. (District of Columbia)
EE-NY-0197-0002 | EE-NY-0197-0015 | EE-NY-0197-0017 | EE-NY-0197-0018 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Martinez-Olguin, Araceli (New York)
EE-NY-0197-9001
McGrath, Stephen J. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0016
Profeta, Lawrence J. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0015 | EE-NY-0197-0017 | EE-NY-0197-9001
Suhl, Natalie C. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-9001
Other Lawyers Martin, Emily J. (New York)
EE-NY-0197-0015 | EE-NY-0197-0017 | EE-NY-0197-9001

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