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Case Name Pangilinan v. Castro IM-MP-0001
Docket / Court 79-0006 ( D. N. Mar. I. )
State/Territory Northern Mariana Islands
Case Type(s) Immigration
Case Summary
In 1979, the plaintiffs, 85 individuals who renounced their Filipino citizenship in 1977 in order to become citizens of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and eventually permanent citizens of the United States, filed suit in the United States District Court for the Northern Mariana ... read more >
In 1979, the plaintiffs, 85 individuals who renounced their Filipino citizenship in 1977 in order to become citizens of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and eventually permanent citizens of the United States, filed suit in the United States District Court for the Northern Mariana Islands against the government of the Northern Marianas seeking "certificates of identity" as citizens of the commonwealth, which entitled them to the benefits of U.S. citizenship. The plaintiffs had all been found qualified to vote in the election of commonwealth officials before the government began operation.

The U.S. sought intervention in the case, which the District Court denied. The District Court also refused to stay the case while the government appealed. The Court of Appeals reversed, finding that the U.S. was entitled to intervene. Smith v. Pangilinan, 651 F.2d 1320 (9th Cir. 1981).

While the case was on appeal, the District Court found that plaintiffs were entitled to the certificates of identity. The government appealed. The Court of Appeals affirmed that decision, but remanded so that the District Court could consider the interests of the U.S., which had not been allowed to intervene. Pangilinan v. Castro, 688 F.2d 610 (9th Cir. 1982).

On remand, the United States sought discovery so that it could examine each plaintiff's qualifications for interim citizenship. The District Court prohibited the government from relitigating any factual or legal issues, Pangilinan v. Castro, 1985 WL 3792 (D.N.Mar.I. Nov. 04, 1985), and the U.S. appealed. The Court of Appeals affirmed. De Mesa v. Castro, 844 F.2d 642 (9th Cir.1988). Rehearing was denied. De Mesa v. Castro, 867 F.2d 1243 (9th Cir. 1989).

Dan Dalton - 01/02/2008


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Immigration
U.S. citizenship - acquiring
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action None on record
Defendant(s) Northern Marianas Commonwealth
U.S. Attorney General
Plaintiff Description A class of 85 individuals who in 1977 renounced Filipino citizenship in order to become citizens of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and eventually permanent citizens of the United States.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Unknown
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 1982 - n/a
Case Closing Year 1989
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Threats to the Future of the Immigration Class Action
Washington University Journal of Law and Policy
By: Jill E. Family (Widener University School of Law)
Citation: 27 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol'y 71 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
No docket sheet currently in the collection
General Documents
[Appellate Opinion] 10/01/1981 (651 F.2d 1320)
IM-MP-0001-0004 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
[Appellate Opinion] 09/20/1982 (688 F.2d 610)
IM-MP-0001-0002 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Decision Granting Partial Summary Judgment 11/04/1985 (1985 WL 3792 / 1985 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 14219) (D. N. Mar. I.)
IM-MP-0001-0005 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
[Appellate Opinion] 04/11/1988 (844 F.2d 642)
IM-MP-0001-0001 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
[Order] 02/24/1989 (867 F.2d 1243)
IM-MP-0001-0003 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Judges Boochever, Robert (Ninth Circuit)
IM-MP-0001-0001 | IM-MP-0001-0002 | IM-MP-0001-0003
Duniway, Benjamin Cushing (Ninth Circuit)
IM-MP-0001-0004
Laureta, Alfred (D. N. Mar. I.)
IM-MP-0001-0005
Merrill, Charles Merton (Ninth Circuit)
IM-MP-0001-0004
Nelson, Dorothy Wright (Ninth Circuit)
IM-MP-0001-0001 | IM-MP-0001-0002 | IM-MP-0001-0003
Schroeder, Mary Murphy (Ninth Circuit)
IM-MP-0001-0001 | IM-MP-0001-0002 | IM-MP-0001-0003
Tang, Thomas (Ninth Circuit)
IM-MP-0001-0004
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers White, Michael A (Northern Mariana Islands)
IM-MP-0001-0001 | IM-MP-0001-0002 | IM-MP-0001-0003 | IM-MP-0001-0004
Defendant's Lawyers Ciolino, Joe (District of Columbia)
IM-MP-0001-0002
Erickson , Robert J. (District of Columbia)
IM-MP-0001-0004
Olderman, Richard A. (District of Columbia)
IM-MP-0001-0001 | IM-MP-0001-0003
Sirok, James S (Northern Mariana Islands)
IM-MP-0001-0002
Other Lawyers None on record

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