University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
new search
page permalink
Case Name Nicacio v. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service IM-WA-0011
Docket / Court C-82-1018 RJM ( E.D. Wash. )
State/Territory Washington
Case Type(s) Immigration
Case Summary
In 1984, a class of Hispanic persons brought suit against the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington, alleging that its Border Patrol agents engaged in a pattern of unlawful stops to detain and interrogate persons of ... read more >
In 1984, a class of Hispanic persons brought suit against the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Washington, alleging that its Border Patrol agents engaged in a pattern of unlawful stops to detain and interrogate persons of Hispanic appearance traveling on Washington state highways. Plaintiffs, represented by Evergreen Legal Services, alleged that agents regularly conducted roving motor vehicle patrols in search of undocumented aliens in Yakima Valley, an area which had substantial agricultural operations and employed many field laborers. Plaintiffs further alleged that many of the stops were based solely on the driver or occupants' Hispanic appearance. Attorneys with the Evergreen Legal Services, Farm Workers Division represented plaintiffs. They sought declaratory and injunctive relief, monetary damages and class certification.

Following a hearing on the merits of the case, the District Court (Chief Judge Robert J. McNichols) entered judgment in favor of the plaintiffs, declaring that the agents' practice of stopping vehicles without a valid search or arrest warrant, or without a particularized reasonable suspicion based on specific articulable facts, was unconstitutional. The Court issued an order requiring INS agents to keep record of each vehicle stop and the stated reasons for it, for a period of three years. Nicacio v. U.S. I.N.S., 595 F.Supp. 19 (E.D.Wash. 1984). The INS appealed.

The Court of Appeals (Circuit Judge Schroeder) affirmed. Nicacio v. U.S. I.N.S., 768 F.2d 1133 (9th Cir. 1985), opinion superseded by Nicacio v. U.S. I.N.S., 797 F.2d 700 (9th Cir. 1985). In its amended opinion, the Appeals Court held that (1) the plaintiff class had standing to bring the suit; (2) Hispanic appearance and work clothing did not constitute reasonable suspicion that persons in a vehicle were undocumented aliens sufficient to justify a motor vehicle stop; and (3) the district court did not abuse its discretion in requiring INS to document reasons for vehicle stops.

We have no further information on this case.

Dan Dalton - 12/11/2007


compress summary

- click to show/hide ALL -
Issues and Causes of Action
click to show/hide detail
Issues
Immigration
Border police
Detention - conditions
Detention - criteria
Detention - procedures
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Bivens
Defendant(s) U.S. Border Patrol
U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service
Plaintiff Description All persons of Mexican, Latin, or Hispanic appearance who have been, are, or will be traveling by motor vehicle on the highways of the State of Washington.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 1984 - 1987
Case Closing Year 1987
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
click to show/hide detail
Case Studies Threats to the Future of the Immigration Class Action
Washington University Journal of Law and Policy
By: Jill E. Family (Widener University School of Law)
Citation: 27 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol'y 71 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
No docket sheet currently in the collection
General Documents
Memorandum Decision 04/18/1984 (595 F.Supp. 19) (E.D. Wash.)
IM-WA-0011-0006 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 08/16/1985 (768 F.2d 1133)
IM-WA-0011-0007 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion 08/19/1986 (797 F.2d 700)
IM-WA-0011-0008 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order 11/22/1995 (W.D. Wash.)
IM-WA-0011-0001 PDF | Detail
Stipulation of Settlement 05/28/2008
IM-WA-0011-0002 PDF | Detail
Stipulation and Order of Protection Regarding Privacy Act Information and Information Covered by 8 U.S.C. Section 1255a(c)(5) 06/01/2008
IM-WA-0011-0003 PDF | Detail
Order of Preliminary Approval of the Class Action Settlement 06/02/2008 (W.D. Wash.)
IM-WA-0011-0004 PDF | Detail
Document Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
Press Release 06/02/2008
IM-WA-0011-0005 PDF | Detail
Judges Beezer, Robert R. (Ninth Circuit)
IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
Goodwin, Alfred Theodore (Ninth Circuit, D. Or.)
IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
McNichols, Robert James (E.D. Wash.)
IM-WA-0011-0006
Robart, James L. (W.D. Wash.)
IM-WA-0011-0002 | IM-WA-0011-0003 | IM-WA-0011-0004
Rothstein, Barbara Jacobs (W.D. Wash.)
IM-WA-0011-0001
Schroeder, Mary Murphy (Ninth Circuit)
IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Benjamin, Thomas B. (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0006
Chandola, Neha (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0005
Ford, Daniel G. (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0006 | IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
Gibbs, Robert H. (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0001 | IM-WA-0011-0002 | IM-WA-0011-0003 | IM-WA-0011-0004 | IM-WA-0011-0005
HolguĂ­n, Carlos R. (California)
IM-WA-0011-0002
Lara, Victor H. (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0006
Matsumoto, Mari Lise (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0005
Pauw, Robert (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0001 | IM-WA-0011-0002 | IM-WA-0011-0005
Rubin, Michael (California)
IM-WA-0011-0002
Schey, Peter A. (California)
IM-WA-0011-0001 | IM-WA-0011-0002 | IM-WA-0011-0004
Walls, Lori (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0005
Defendant's Lawyers Beatty, William (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0006
Filppu, Lauri Steven (District of Columbia)
IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
Golding, Marshall Tamal (District of Columbia)
IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
Gray, Carroll D. (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0006
Hussey, Thomas W. (District of Columbia)
IM-WA-0011-0007 | IM-WA-0011-0008
Lamp, John (Washington)
IM-WA-0011-0006
Norwood, Anthony W. (District of Columbia)
IM-WA-0011-0002 | IM-WA-0011-0003 | IM-WA-0011-0004
Other Lawyers None on record

- click to show/hide ALL -

new search
page permalink

- top of page -