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Case Name Moreno v. University of Maryland IM-MD-0003
Docket / Court M-75-691 ( D. Md. )
State/Territory Maryland
Case Type(s) Immigration
Case Summary
In 1976, university students whose parents had nonimmigrant alien G-4 visas (visas issued to nonimmigrant aliens who were officers or employees of certain international organizations and to members of their immediate families) brought a class action against the University of Maryland in the United ... read more >
In 1976, university students whose parents had nonimmigrant alien G-4 visas (visas issued to nonimmigrant aliens who were officers or employees of certain international organizations and to members of their immediate families) brought a class action against the University of Maryland in the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, challenging the university's admission and fees policy denying them in-state tuition status. The University contended that G-4 visa holders could not acquire Maryland domicile necessary for "in-state" tuition because the visa holder was incapable of demonstrating the intent to live permanently or indefinitely in Maryland. Plaintiffs contended that the policy violated the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment.

The District Court (Judge James R. Miller, Jr.) granted partial summary judgment in favor of students finding that the university's "in-state" tuition policy created an "irrebuttable presumption of non-domicile" which violated the Due Process Clause. The Court enjoined the university from enforcing the policy with respect to the named plaintiffs and members of their class. Moreno v. University of Maryland, 420 F.Supp. 541 (D.Md. 1976). The university appealed. The Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit affirmed, Moreno v. Elkins, 556 F.2d 573 (4th Cir.1977), and the Supreme Court granted certiorari, Elkins v. Moreno, 434 U.S. 888, 98 S.Ct. 260, 54 L.Ed.2d 173 (1977), and then certified that the Maryland state court answer a question of state law: Could G-4 aliens become domiciliaries of Maryland? Elkins v. Moreno, 435 U.S. 647, 98 S.Ct. 1338, 55 L.Ed.2d 614 (1978). The state court found that G-4 aliens could become domiciliaries of Maryland. Toll v. Moreno, 284 Md. 425, 397 A.2d 1009 (1979).

While the appeal was pending, the Board of Regents of the University of Maryland issued a resolution which purported to clarify its reasons for denying in-state status to nonimmigrant aliens. In light of the University's clarifying resolution, the Supreme Court vacated the Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals judgment and remanded the case to the District Court for further proceedings. Toll v. Moreno, 441 U.S. 458, 99 S.Ct. 2044, 60 L.Ed.2d 354 (1979).

On remand, the District Court (Judge Miller) found that the state university's policy and clarification of that policy violated the Equal Protection Clause and the Supremacy Clause. Moreno v. Toll, 480 F.Supp. 1116 (D.Md.1979). The Court of Appeals affirmed, Moreno v. University of Maryland, 645 F.2d 217 (4th Cir. 1981), and the Supreme Court again granted certiorari. Toll v. Moreno, 454 U.S. 815, 102 S.Ct. 91, 70 L.Ed.2d 83 (1981). The Supreme Court affirmed, holding that the policy violated the Supremacy Clause and that the Eleventh Amendment did not preclude the District Court from ordering the university to issue refunds to class members who had been denied in-state tuition while the case was on appeal. Toll v. Moreno, 458 U.S. 1, 102 S.Ct. 2977, 73 L.Ed.2d 563 (1982).

We have no further information on the case.

Dan Dalton - 01/03/2008


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Federalism
General
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Immigration
Constitutional rights
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. ยงยง 1101 et seq.
Bivens
Defendant(s) University of Maryland
Plaintiff Description University of Maryland students who were denied "in-state" tuition because their parents held nonimmigrant alien G-4 visas.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted Yes
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 1979 - n/a
Case Closing Year 1982
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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Case Studies Threats to the Future of the Immigration Class Action
Washington University Journal of Law and Policy
By: Jill E. Family (Widener University School of Law)
Citation: 27 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol'y 71 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Links The Oyez Project, Elkins v. Moreno, 435 U.S. 647 (1978).
www.oyez.org
Posted: Apr. 19, 1978
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  The Oyez Project, Toll v. Moreno, 441 U.S. 458 (1979).
www.oyez.org
Posted: Apr. 30, 1979
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  The Oyez Project, Toll v. Moreno, 458 U.S. 1 (1982).
www.oyez.org
Posted: Jun. 28, 1982
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
No docket sheet currently in the collection
General Documents
Opinion and Order 07/13/1976 (420 F.Supp. 541) (D. Md.)
IM-MD-0003-0003 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Brief of Appellant 11/18/1976
IM-MD-0003-0001 PDF | Detail
Reply Brief of Appellant 02/02/1977
IM-MD-0003-0002 PDF | Detail
Order 04/28/1977 (556 F.2d 573)
IM-MD-0003-0007 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Order Granting Writ of Certiorari 10/11/1977 (434 U.S. 888)
IM-MD-0003-0008 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Supreme Court Opinion 04/19/1978 (435 U.S. 647)
IM-MD-0003-0009 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Appellate Opinion 02/21/1979 (397 A.2d 1009)
IM-MD-0003-0010 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Per Curiam 04/30/1979 (441 U.S. 458)
IM-MD-0003-0011 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Memorandum 10/31/1979 (480 F.Supp. 1116) (D. Md.)
IM-MD-0003-0004 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Memorandum and Order 04/17/1980 (489 F.Supp. 658) (D. Md.)
IM-MD-0003-0005 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Per Curiam 03/26/1981 (645 F.2d 217)
IM-MD-0003-0006 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Order Granting Petition for Writ of Certiorari 10/05/1981 (454 U.S. 815)
IM-MD-0003-0012 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Order Denying Motion of Petitioners 01/11/1982 (454 U.S. 1137)
IM-MD-0003-0013 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Supreme Court Opinion 06/28/1982 (458 U.S. 1)
IM-MD-0003-0014 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Judges Brennan, William Joseph Jr. (SCOTUS)
IM-MD-0003-0009 | IM-MD-0003-0014
Cole, Harry A. (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Digges, Dudley (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Eldridge, John C. (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Ervin, Samuel James III (Fourth Circuit)
IM-MD-0003-0006
Levine, Irving (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Miller, James Rogers Jr. (D. Md.)
IM-MD-0003-0003 | IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005
Murphy, Joseph F. (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Orth, Charles E. (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Russell, Donald Stuart (D.S.C., Fourth Circuit)
IM-MD-0003-0006
Smith, Marvin H. (State Appellate Court)
IM-MD-0003-0010
Winter, Harrison Lee (D. Md., Fourth Circuit)
IM-MD-0003-0006
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Bernstein, Raymond M. (District of Columbia)
IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005 | IM-MD-0003-0010
Bieke, James R. (District of Columbia)
IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005 | IM-MD-0003-0006 | IM-MD-0003-0010 | IM-MD-0003-0014
Rich, John Townsend (District of Columbia)
IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005 | IM-MD-0003-0006 | IM-MD-0003-0010
Scanlan, Alfred L. (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0003 | IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005 | IM-MD-0003-0006 | IM-MD-0003-0009 | IM-MD-0003-0010
Woosley, R. James (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0003 | IM-MD-0003-0006
Defendant's Lawyers Burch, Francis B. (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0001 | IM-MD-0003-0002 | IM-MD-0003-0010
Feldman, David H. (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0001 | IM-MD-0003-0002 | IM-MD-0003-0003 | IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005 | IM-MD-0003-0006 | IM-MD-0003-0009 | IM-MD-0003-0010
Roach, Jack T. (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0001 | IM-MD-0003-0002 | IM-MD-0003-0003
Sachs, Stephen H. (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0006
Zarnoch, Robert A. (Maryland)
IM-MD-0003-0001 | IM-MD-0003-0002 | IM-MD-0003-0004 | IM-MD-0003-0005 | IM-MD-0003-0006 | IM-MD-0003-0010 | IM-MD-0003-0014
Other Lawyers None on record

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