University of Michigan Law School
Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse
new search
page permalink
Case Name Baker v. City of New York IM-DC-0012
Docket / Court 83-3741; 83-3739; 83-3895 ( D.D.C. )
State/Territory District of Columbia
Case Type(s) Immigration
Case Summary
In 1988, three separate lawsuits were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, challenging the Secretary of State's refusal to issue nonimmigrant tourist visas to aliens that the plaintiffs had invited to come to the U.S. for public speaking engagements. The State ... read more >
In 1988, three separate lawsuits were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, challenging the Secretary of State's refusal to issue nonimmigrant tourist visas to aliens that the plaintiffs had invited to come to the U.S. for public speaking engagements. The State Department denied the visas under Section 212(a)(27) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. § 1182(a)(27) (1982), which permitted exclusion of aliens who seek to enter U.S. to engage in activities that would prejudice public interest or endanger security of United States. The U.S. citizen plaintiffs claimed that the denial of the visas to the aliens infringed the plaintiffs' First Amendment rights. The three cases and the aliens who requested visas were: Abourezk v. Bush, No. 88-5235 (Tomas Borge, Nicaragua's Minister of the Interior); City of New York v. Baker, No. 88-5236 (Olga Finlay and Leonor Rodriguez Lezcano, members of the Federation of Cuban Women); and Cronin v. Baker, No. 88-5237 (Nino Pasti, former member of the Italian Senate and participant in the World Peace Council).

The District Court (Judge Harold H. Greene) entered judgment in favor of the government. Abourezk v. Reagan, 592 F.Supp. 880 (D.D.C. 1984). Plaintiffs appealed. The Court of Appeals vacated and remanded for further consideration of the issue of whether subsection 27 permitted the exclusion of aliens based solely on a State Department determination that their mere entry or presence in the U.S., rather than their anticipated activities after entry, would prejudice American interests. Abourezk v. Reagan, 785 F.2d 1043 (D.C.Cir. 1986). Certiorari was granted by the U.S. Supreme Court. Reagan v. Abourezk, 479 U.S. 1016, 107 S.Ct. 666, 93 L.Ed.2d 718 (1986). The Supreme Court affirmed. Reagan v. Abourezk, 484 U.S. 1, 108 S.Ct. 252, 98 L.Ed.2d 1 (1987).

On remand, the District Court granted summary judgment for the plaintiffs and ordered that nonimmigrant visas be issued. Abourezk v. Reagan, 1988 WL 59640, 1988 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5203 (D.D.C. June 07, 1988). The government appealed the Court's orders in the Baker and Cronin cases.

The Court of Appeals found that the Baker case had been rendered moot in light of Presidential Proclamation 5377, which suspended entry of all officials of the Cuban government or those considered to be members of the Cuban communist party. As the Baker plaintiffs were denied entry by the Proclamation 5377, their case was ordered dismissed. In the Cronin case, the Appeals Court remanded so that the District Court could rewrite its order so as to not exceed its authority. City of New York v. Baker, 878 F.2d 507 (D.C.Cir. 1989) rehearing denied by 888 F.2d 134 (D.C.Cir. 1989).

We do not have any further information on the case.

Dan Dalton - 12/30/2007


compress summary

- click to show/hide ALL -
Issues and Causes of Action
click to show/hide detail
Issues
Immigration
Admission - criteria
Constitutional rights
Temporary visitors
Visas - criteria
Visas - procedures
Plaintiff Type
Private Plaintiff
Causes of Action Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), 8 U.S.C. §§ 1101 et seq.
Defendant(s) Immigration and Naturalization Service
Secretary of State
Plaintiff Description Individual aliens who were denied visas, and that had been invited by American citizens and organizations to come to the U.S. at various times in 1983 to engage in public speaking events.
Indexed Lawyer Organizations None on record
Class action status sought No
Class action status granted No
Prevailing Party Mixed
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Form of Settlement None on record
Order Duration 1988 - n/a
Case Closing Year n/a
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
click to show/hide detail
Case Studies Threats to the Future of the Immigration Class Action
Washington University Journal of Law and Policy
By: Jill E. Family (Widener University School of Law)
Citation: 27 Wash. U. J.L. & Pol'y 71 (2008)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Links The Oyez Project, Reagan v. Abourezk, 484 U.S. 1 (1987).
www.oyez.org
Posted: Oct. 19, 1987
By: Oyez Project (IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Docket(s)
No docket sheet currently in the collection
General Documents
Opinion 07/27/1984 (592 F.Supp. 880) (D.D.C.)
IM-DC-0012-0003 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
USCA Opinion 03/11/1986 (785 F.2d 1043)
IM-DC-0012-0004 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Supreme Court Order 12/15/1986 (479 U.S. 1016)
IM-DC-0012-0006 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Per Curiam 10/19/1987 (484 U.S. 1)
IM-DC-0012-0007 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Westlaw
Opinion 06/17/1988 (1988 WL 59640) (D.D.C.)
IM-DC-0012-0005 PDF | WESTLAW | Detail
Opinion [re: Dismissal of Appeal] 07/11/1989 (878 F.2d 507)
IM-DC-0012-0001 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Opinion [re: Appellate's Petition for Rehearing] 10/06/1989 (888 F.2d 134)
IM-DC-0012-0002 PDF | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Document Source: Google Scholar
Judges Bork, Robert Heron (D.C. Circuit)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Buckley, James Lane (D.C. Circuit)
IM-DC-0012-0001 | IM-DC-0012-0002
Edwards, Harry Thomas (D.C. Circuit)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Ginsburg, Douglas Howard (D.C. Circuit)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Greene, Harold H. (D.D.C.)
IM-DC-0012-0003
Mikva, Abner Joseph (D.C. Circuit)
IM-DC-0012-0001 | IM-DC-0012-0002
Williams, Stephen Fain (D.C. Circuit)
IM-DC-0012-0001 | IM-DC-0012-0002
Monitors/Masters None on record
Plaintiff's Lawyers Boudin, Leonard B. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0004 | IM-DC-0012-0005
Copeland, Edward (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0005
Crosby, Margaret C. (California)
IM-DC-0012-0003
Eisenberg, Arthur (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0005
Neuborne, Burt (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0003
Pandya, Amit (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0003
Schwarz, Frederick A.O. Jr. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0004
Shaffer, Susan W. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0003
Shapiro, Steven R. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0001 | IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0004 | IM-DC-0012-0005
Sims, Charles S. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0004
Young, Michael D. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0005
Zimroth, Peter L. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0005
Defendant's Lawyers Bernal, David V. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0005
Blankenstein, Paul (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Bombaugh, Robert L. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0005
DiGenova, Joseph E. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Herwig, Barbara L. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Hussey, Thomas W. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0003 | IM-DC-0012-0004 | IM-DC-0012-0005
Singer, Michael Jay (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0001 | IM-DC-0012-0004
Sisk, Gregory C. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0001
Stephens, Jay B. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0001
Willard, Richard K. (District of Columbia)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Other Lawyers McKay, Robert B. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0004
Quarles, Steven P. (New York)
IM-DC-0012-0004

- click to show/hide ALL -

new search
page permalink

- top of page -